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Chemical Compound Review

Neurokinin B     3-amino-3-[[1-[[1-[[1-[[1- [[1-[[1-[[1-[(1...

Synonyms: Neuromedin-?K, NEUROKININ K, Neuromedin K, N4143_SIGMA, CHEBI:130456, ...
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Disease relevance of Neurokinin beta


Psychiatry related information on Neurokinin beta


High impact information on Neurokinin beta

  • Here we have cloned a complementary DNA from human placental messenger RNA encoding a precursor protein of 121 amino acids which gives rise to a mature peptide identical to the neuropeptide neurokinin B (NKB) of other mammalian species [1].
  • Here we identify epitopes on the NK1 receptor responsible for the specific binding of CP 96345 by systematic exchange of corresponding segments between the NK1 receptor and the homologous NK3 (neurokinin B) receptor, which does not bind the non-peptide ligand [10].
  • Close intraarterial infusions of NKA, neurokinin B, SP, NPK, eledoisin, and physalaemin at doses of 0.1-100 pmol/min induced dose-dependent contractions of the proximal and distal colon (P less than 0.001) and vasodilatation (P less than 0.001), NKA being the most potent [11].
  • Tachykinin 4 gene expression was detected primarily in adrenal gland and in the placenta, where, like neurokinin B, significant amounts of EKB-like immunoreactivity were detected [12].
  • This cell line also bound [125I-MePhe7]neurokinin B; however, neurokinin B was an effective competitor [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Neurokinin beta


Biological context of Neurokinin beta


Anatomical context of Neurokinin beta

  • Interestingly, in contrast to neurokinin B, [Cys3,6]SP is a weak agonist of the neurokinin 2 receptor subtype, as evidenced by its binding potency in inhibiting 3H-labeled neurokinin A-specific binding on rat duodenum and in inducing the contractions of the rabbit pulmonary artery, a neurokinin 2-type bioassay [21].
  • Moreover, [Cys3,6]SP is as potent as neurokinin B in inhibiting 125I-labeled Bolton and Hunter eledoisin-specific binding on rat cortical synaptosomes as well as in stimulating rat portal vein, two tests specific for the neurokinin 3 receptor [21].
  • In addition, interactions between SP and other growth factors and neuropeptides including insulin, platelet factors, neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were studied on endothelial cell growth and compared [22].
  • The tachykinin NKB has antinociceptive effects in the spinal cord and is contained in intrinsic spinal neurons; thus, NKB may also contribute to the processing of sensory information [23].
  • Neurokinin-B transcription in erythroid cells: direct activation by the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 [24].

Associations of Neurokinin beta with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Neurokinin beta


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neurokinin beta

  • Because the antiserum K-12 recognizes various tachykinins, such as neurokinin A (100%), kassinin (103%), eledoisin (51%), neurokinin B (18%), physalaemin (0.7%), and substance P (0.7%), the immunoreactivity detected in this enzyme immunoassay has been termed TK-LI [32].
  • Using an antiserum raised against a 30-residue peptide fragment (Peptide 2) of the protein precursor to neurokinin B, we have mapped the distribution of Peptide 2 by immunocytochemistry [33].
  • These results have permitted the design of specific probes to differentiate between substance P and neurokinin B transcripts by using in situ hybridization histochemistry [34].
  • Further analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography revealed that increases in both neurokinin A and neurokinin B concentrations contributed to the increases in total neurokinin immunoreactivity 30 days after kainic acid [35].
  • Peptide 2 antiserum specificity was determined by western blot analysis (which showed antibody cross-reactivity to a neurokinin B fusion protein from a cloned neurokinin B-encoding complementary DNA) and by the elimination of immunoreactive product in brain tissue sections upon preabsorption with a 10 microM concentration of Peptide 2 peptide [33].


  1. Excessive placental secretion of neurokinin B during the third trimester causes pre-eclampsia. Page, N.M., Woods, R.J., Gardiner, S.M., Lomthaisong, K., Gladwell, R.T., Butlin, D.J., Manyonda, I.T., Lowry, P.J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Hypertrophy and increased gene expression of neurons containing neurokinin-B and substance-P messenger ribonucleic acids in the hypothalami of postmenopausal women. Rance, N.E., Young, W.S. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, neurokinin B and cholecystokinin immunoreactivity in two chronic models of temporal lobe epilepsy. Schwarzer, C., Williamson, J.M., Lothman, E.W., Vezzani, A., Sperk, G. Neuroscience (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Combinations of neurokinin receptor antagonists reduce visceral hyperalgesia. Kamp, E.H., Beck, D.R., Gebhart, G.F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Receptor subtypes involved in tachykinin-mediated edema formation. Alves, R.V., Campos, M.M., Santos, A.R., Calixto, J.B. Peptides (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Huntington's disease: changes in tachykinin content in postmortem brains. Arai, H., Emson, P.C., Carrasco, L.H. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of supraspinal administration of PG-SPI and PG-KII, two amphibian tachykinin peptides, on nociception in the rat. Improta, G., Broccardo, M. Peptides (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Three dimensional structure of mammalian tachykinin peptide neurokinin B bound to lipid micelles. Mantha, A.K., Chandrashekar, I.R., Baquer, N.Z., Cowsik, S.M. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of water deprivation on neurokinin B production by the arginine-vasopressin neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Hatae, T., Nakayama, Y., Kawano, H., Masuko, S. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Different binding epitopes on the NK1 receptor for substance P and non-peptide antagonist. Gether, U., Johansen, T.E., Snider, R.M., Lowe, J.A., Nakanishi, S., Schwartz, T.W. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Occurrence, release, and effects of multiple tachykinins in cat colonic tissues and nerves. Hellström, P.M., Söder, O., Theodorsson, E. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of the endokinins: human tachykinins with cardiovascular activity. Page, N.M., Bell, N.J., Gardiner, S.M., Manyonda, I.T., Brayley, K.J., Strange, P.G., Lowry, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional expression of a novel human neurokinin-3 receptor homolog that binds [3H]senktide and [125I-MePhe7]neurokinin B, and is responsive to tachykinin peptide agonists. Krause, J.E., Staveteig, P.T., Mentzer, J.N., Schmidt, S.K., Tucker, J.B., Brodbeck, R.M., Bu, J.Y., Karpitskiy, V.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of ovariectomy on the neuroendocrine axes regulating reproduction and energy balance in young cynomolgus macaques. Sandoval-Guzmán, T., Stalcup, S.T., Krajewski, S.J., Voytko, M.L., Rance, N.E. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Kainic acid induced seizures cause a marked increase in the expression of neurokinin-3 receptor mRNA in the rat cerebellum. Röder, C., Bellmann, R., McCarson, K.E., Krause, J.E., Sperk, G. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuropeptides in hypothalamic neuronal disorders. Swaab, D.F. Int. Rev. Cytol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Development of substance P receptors on rat motoneurons in vitro. St John, P.A., Stephens, S.L. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Neurokinin B is a paracrine vasodilator in the human fetal placental circulation. Brownbill, P., Bell, N.J., Woods, R.J., Lowry, P.J., Page, N.M., Sibley, C.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression in a primate model of menopause. Abel, T.W., Voytko, M.L., Rance, N.E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Ranakinin: a novel NK1 tachykinin receptor agonist isolated with neurokinin B from the brain of the frog Rana ridibunda. O'Harte, F., Burcher, E., Lovas, S., Smith, D.D., Vaudry, H., Conlon, J.M. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Interaction of tachykinins with their receptors studied with cyclic analogues of substance P and neurokinin B. Ploux, O., Lavielle, S., Chassaing, G., Julien, S., Marquet, A., d'Orléans-Juste, P., Dion, S., Regoli, D., Beaujouan, J.C., Bergström, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Growth-promoting effects of substance P on endothelial cells in vitro. Synergism with calcitonin gene-related peptide, insulin, and plasma factors. Villablanca, A.C., Murphy, C.J., Reid, T.W. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. NK-1 and NK-3 type tachykinin receptor mRNA expression in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn is increased during adjuvant or formalin-induced nociception. McCarson, K.E., Krause, J.E. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Neurokinin-B transcription in erythroid cells: direct activation by the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1. Pal, S., Nemeth, M.J., Bodine, D., Miller, J.L., Svaren, J., Thein, S.L., Lowry, P.J., Bresnick, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Role of nitric oxide in tachykinin-induced increase in potential difference of rabbit tracheal mucosa. Tamaoki, J., Sakai, A., Kondo, M., Takemura, H., Konno, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Binding of a iodinated substance P analog to a NK-1 receptor on isolated cell membranes from rat anterior pituitary. Larsen, P.J., Mikkelsen, J.D., Saermark, T. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the membrane-bound conformation of senktide, a highly selective neurokinin B agonist. Bersch, B., Koehl, P., Nakatani, Y., Ourisson, G., Milon, A. J. Biomol. NMR (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Neurokinin B induces oedema formation in mouse lung via tachykinin receptor-independent mechanisms. Grant, A.D., Akhtar, R., Gerard, N.P., Brain, S.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Estrogen regulation of neurokinin B gene expression in the mouse arcuate nucleus is mediated by estrogen receptor alpha. Dellovade, T.L., Merchenthaler, I. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional and molecular characterization of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in the mouse uterus. Patak, E., Pinto, F.M., Story, M.E., Pintado, C.O., Fleming, A., Page, N.M., Pennefather, J.N., Candenas, M.L. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. mRNA expression of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in different human tissues. Pinto, F.M., Almeida, T.A., Hernandez, M., Devillier, P., Advenier, C., Candenas, M.L. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Enzyme immunoassay for tachykinin-like immunoreactivity in the guinea pig spinal cord. Renzi, D., Maillet, S., Grassi, J., Mantellini, P., Santicioli, P., Theodorsson, E., Surrenti, C., Geppetti, P. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Localization of the tachykinin neurokinin B precursor peptide in rat brain by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization. Lucas, L.R., Hurley, D.L., Krause, J.E., Harlan, R.E. Neuroscience (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Distribution of cells containing mRNAs encoding substance P and neurokinin B in the rat central nervous system. Warden, M.K., Young, W.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Differential changes in tachykinins after kainic acid-induced seizures in the rat. Sperk, G., Marksteiner, J., Saria, A., Humpel, C. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
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