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Chemical Compound Review

Magnesium-28     magnesium

Synonyms: AC1O3U2L, 28Mg, 15092-71-4, Magnesium, isotope of mass 28
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Disease relevance of magnesium


Psychiatry related information on magnesium

  • Since it is well known that chronic alcohol consumption leads to hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia, we designed experiments to determine if controlled depletion of either phosphorous or magnesium (Mg2+) lead, in themselves, to cardiovascular disturbances and what effects these mineral depletions exert on myocardial cellular bioenergetics [6].
  • Plasma and erythrocyte sodium (Na+), total and free (ultrafiltrable) plasma magnesium (Mg2+) as well as erythrocyte magnesium were measured in patients with affective disorders and in healthy control subjects [7].

High impact information on magnesium

  • Here, positional cloning has identified a human gene, paracellin-1 (PCLN-1), mutations in which cause renal Mg2+ wasting [8].
  • Renal magnesium ion (Mg2+) resorption occurs predominantly through a paracellular conductance in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) [8].
  • These findings provide insight into Mg2+ homeostasis, demonstrate the role of a tight junction protein in human disease, and identify an essential component of a selective paracellular conductance [8].
  • The Mg2+ blockade was partially restored by increased extracellular Mg2+ concentration or by pretreatment with the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C [9].
  • In vitro studies using rat renal cortical slices revealed a progressive decrease in cAMP production in response to PTH as the Mg++ concentrations were increased in the incubation medium [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of magnesium


Biological context of magnesium

  • Percent decrements of forearm vascular resistance with Mg2+ infusions were significantly less in BHT subjects than in NT (-37.2 +/- 4.2% versus -53.0 +/- 2.0%, p less than 0.05, during the infusion of 0.1 meq Mg2+/min, and -52.2 +/- 4.3% versus -65.6 +/- 1.5%, p less than 0.05, during the infusion of 0.2 meq Mg2+/min) [16].
  • Furthermore, the effect of small increments in local serum calcium concentrations on Mg2(+)- and K(+)-induced vasodilation was studied in normal volunteers [16].
  • However, the changes in total element content, i.e., sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca), during apoptosis have not been evaluated [17].
  • Measurement of Mg and ALP in a subgroup of 10 cardiac-surgery patients for 10 days postoperatively showed initial decreases, with gradual recovery to near-normal values by the 10th day [18].
  • McN-A-343 did not alter the excitatory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked by corticostriatal stimulation in the presence of physiological concentration of magnesium (Mg2+ 1.2 mM), while it enhanced the duration of these EPSPs recorded in the absence of external magnesium [19].

Anatomical context of magnesium

  • Thus, these attenuated responses to Mg2+ but normal responses to K+ in BHT subjects may indicate an underlying defect in vascular Mg2+ metabolism, which ultimately may be related to the alterations in calcium handling by plasma membranes rather than to the abnormalities of membrane Na(+)-K+ pump activity [16].
  • Using Mg(2+)-loaded erythrocytes, we measured Mg2+ efflux induced by extracellular Na+ [2].
  • In Ca/Mg, migrating keratinocytes on all test substrata produced a sheet of contiguous cells that formed a robust halo around each explant [20].
  • Finally, seminal plasma fructose, Zn, and Mg levels did not correlate with sperm parameters or with pretreatment thyroid hormone levels [21].
  • No obvious changes were observed, except for minor enhancement in magnesium ion (Mg2+)- and CA2+ ATPase activities of mesenteric arterial membranes isolated from salt-sensitive Dahl rats on high-salt diet compared to those from other groups of rats [22].

Associations of magnesium with other chemical compounds

  • At normal serum Mg++ concentrations (1.89 +/- 0.14 mg/100 ml), PTH infusion increased cAMP excretion from 1.76 +/- 0.27 to 4.87 +/- 1.00 nmol/min and fractional PO4= excretion (FEPO4) from 1.58 +/- 0.36% to 23.1 +/- 2.17% [10].
  • The effect of infusing PTH on the urinary excretion of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and PO4= was examined in five normal dogs at two different levels of serum Mg++ [10].
  • During and after 10-h control infusions of sodium chloride, the levels of 1,25-(OH)2D, PTH, Ca, Ca++, Pin, and Mg remained unaltered [23].
  • PTH increased within 2 h (P less than 0.05) and remained elevated (P less than 0.05) for up to 2 h after the end of the EGTA infusions, whereas Pin and Mg were not significantly changed [23].
  • However, no significant (P = NS) differences in Mgi or Cai levels were observed between older normal and young/middle-aged subjects with EH (Mgi = 189.7 +/- 5.9 vs 182.6 +/- 9.8 microM; Cai = 33.8 +/- 4.9 vs 35.6 +/- 4.0 nM) or DM (Mgi = 182.8 +/- 10.9 vs 180.8 +/- 8.1 microM; Cai = 33.6 +/- 4.3 vs 39.7 +/- 5.9 nM) [12].

Gene context of magnesium

  • Positive correlations were found between Mg and HDL and Apo AI in all the groups whereas the mineral correlated with t-Chol, Apo B and the ratio LDL/Apo B only in the group A of patients [24].
  • TRP vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) is responsible for the rate-limiting Ca2+ entry, and TRP melastatin 6 (TRPM6) constitutes the apical entry step in Mg2+ reabsorption [25].
  • At rest only one PFK patient showed a [Mg2+] higher than the value found in control subjects [26].
  • The serum Zn concentration of COPD group was lower than the control group (p=0.042), whereas the Mg concentration was higher (p=0.021) [27].
  • Whether serum Mg++ concentrations also modify the action of PTH on its target organs has not been definitively established [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of magnesium

  • RESULTS--A significant increase in plasma magnesium levels was observed after 3 months of treatment (Mg: 0.73 +/- 0.8 vs. 0.81 +/- 0.1 mmol/l), reaching magnesium levels of the control group (0.88 +/- 0.8 mmol/l; NS); metabolic control, however, was not altered (HbA1c: 7.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9%) [28].
  • The low ALP activity seen in post-cardiac surgery patients in vivo may perhaps be related to factors other than Mg that were removed by the cardiopulmonary bypass pump [18].
  • That the changes in Mg and ALP seen postoperatively were not attributable to hemodilution alone was confirmed by measuring total-protein concentrations before and after operation [18].
  • Significant decreases in magnesium (Mg) concentration and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, EC activity in serum were seen in patients after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (Group 1), as compared with non-cardiac-surgery patients after general anesthesia (Group 2) or only spinal anesthesia (Group 3) [18].
  • Serum Mg2+ was measured by the ion- selective electrode method [29].


  1. Two open complexes and a requirement for Mg2+ to open the lambda PR transcription start site. Suh, W.C., Ross, W., Record, M.T. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Abnormal regulation of Mg2+ transport via Na/Mg exchanger in sickle erythrocytes. Rivera, A., Ferreira, A., Bertoni, D., Romero, J.R., Brugnara, C. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cellular ions in hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic study. Resnick, L.M., Gupta, R.K., Bhargava, K.K., Gruenspan, H., Alderman, M.H., Laragh, J.H. Hypertension (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Neonatal hypocalcemia mechanism of occurrence and management. Tsang, R.C., Steichen, J.J., Chan, G.M. Crit. Care Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  5. Normal parathyroid hormone responses to hypocalcemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. Robertie, P.G., Butterworth, J.F., Royster, R.L., Prielipp, R.C., Dudas, L., Black, K.W., Cole, L.R., Zaloga, G.P. Anesthesiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia result in cardiovascular dysfunction: theoretical basis for alcohol-induced cellular injury. Brautbar, N., Altura, B.M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Plasma and erythrocyte electrolytes in affective disorders. Frazer, A., Ramsey, T.A., Swann, A., Bowden, C., Brunswick, D., Garver, D., Secunda, S. Journal of affective disorders. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Paracellin-1, a renal tight junction protein required for paracellular Mg2+ resorption. Simon, D.B., Lu, Y., Choate, K.A., Velazquez, H., Al-Sabban, E., Praga, M., Casari, G., Bettinelli, A., Colussi, G., Rodriguez-Soriano, J., McCredie, D., Milford, D., Sanjad, S., Lifton, R.P. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduction of voltage-dependent Mg2+ blockade of NMDA current in mechanically injured neurons. Zhang, L., Rzigalinski, B.A., Ellis, E.F., Satin, L.S. Science (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibitory effects of hypermagnesemia on the renal action of parathyroid hormone. Slatopolsky, E., Mercado, A., Morrison, A., Yates, J., Klahr, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia at admission in patients with severe head injury. Polderman, K.H., Bloemers, F.W., Peerdeman, S.M., Girbes, A.R. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Cellular ionic alterations with age: relation to hypertension and diabetes. Barbagallo, M., Gupta, R.K., Dominguez, L.J., Resnick, L.M. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Redistribution of minerals and trace elements in chronic inflammation--a study on isolated blood cells from patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Hällgren, R., Feltelius, N., Lindh, U. J. Rheumatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Decreased muscle strength and contents of Mg and Na,K-pumps in chronic alcoholics occur independently of liver cirrhosis. Aagaard, N.K., Andersen, H., Vilstrup, H., Clausen, T., Jakobsen, J., Dørup, I. J. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Voluntary dehydration and electrolyte losses during prolonged exercise in the heat. Armstrong, L.E., Hubbard, R.W., Szlyk, P.C., Matthew, W.T., Sils, I.V. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Attenuated vasodilator responses to Mg2+ in young patients with borderline hypertension. Fujita, T., Ito, Y., Ando, K., Noda, H., Ogata, E. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in elemental content during apoptotic cell death studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fernández-Segura, E., Cañizares, F.J., Cubero, M.A., Warley, A., Campos, A. Exp. Cell Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Hypomagnesemia and low alkaline phosphatase activity in patients' serum after cardiac surgery. Lum, G., Marquardt, C., Khuri, S.F. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Endogenous ACh enhances striatal NMDA-responses via M1-like muscarinic receptors and PKC activation. Calabresi, P., Centonze, D., Gubellini, P., Pisani, A., Bernardi, G. Eur. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Divalent cations and extracellular matrix receptor function during newt epidermal cell migration. Mahan, J.T., Donaldson, D.J. J. Cell. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A prospective controlled study of the impact of hyperthyroidism on reproductive function in males. Krassas, G.E., Pontikides, N., Deligianni, V., Miras, K. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Subcellular membrane properties in vascular and non-vascular smooth muscles of Dahl hypertensive rats. Kwan, C.Y., Triggle, C.R., Grover, A.K., Daniel, E.E. J. Hypertens. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Rapidity of plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D responses to hypo- and hypercalcemia in steers. Blum, J.W., Trechsel, U., Born, W., Tobler, P.H., Taylor, C.M., Binswanger, U., Fischer, J.A. Endocrinology (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. The association of serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins with selected trace elements and minerals in phenylketonuric patients on diet. Schulpis, K.H., Karakonstantakis, T., Bartzeliotou, A., Karikas, G.A., Papassotiriou, I. Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Epithelial Ca2+ and Mg2+ channels in kidney disease. Thébault, S., Hoenderop, J.G., Bindels, R.J. Advances in chronic kidney disease. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Free Mg2+ concentration in the calf muscle of glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase deficiency patients assessed in different metabolic conditions by 31P MRS. Malucelli, E., Lodi, R., Martinuzzi, A., Tonon, C., Barbiroli, B., Iotti, S. Dynamic medicine [electronic resource] : DM. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Should chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outpatients be routinely evaluated for trace elements? Karul, A.B., Karadag, F., Yensel, N., Altinisik, M., Altun, C., Cildag, O. Biological trace element research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Eibl, N.L., Kopp, H.P., Nowak, H.R., Schnack, C.J., Hopmeier, P.G., Schernthaner, G. Diabetes Care (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Profound ionized hypomagnesemia induced by therapeutic plasma exchange in liver failure patients. Kamochi, M., Aibara, K., Nakata, K., Murakami, M., Nandate, K., Sakamoto, H., Sata, T., Shigematsu, A. Transfusion (2002) [Pubmed]
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