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Gene Review

Ren1  -  renin 1 structural

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Angiotensinogenase, D19352, Kidney renin, Ren, Ren-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Ren1


High impact information on Ren1

  • This has encouraged intense activity in the development of inhibitors of kidney renin, which is a very specific aspartic proteinase catalysing the first and rate limiting step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin II [4].
  • Ren2d but not Ren1d is expressed in submandibular gland (SMG) while both are expressed in the kidney [5].
  • Contrary to the SMG, transfection with Ren1d fragment-CAT construct or Ren2d fragment-CAT construct into the kidney resulted in similar levels of CAT expression [5].
  • Fragments of the Ren1d or Ren2d promoter were fused to a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene expression vector [5].
  • Comparison of these sequences with the sequence of Swiss mouse SMG renin mRNA we have previously reported, demonstrates that Swiss mice express the two non-allelic genes, Rn1 and Rn2 [6].

Biological context of Ren1

  • Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA coding for mouse Ren1 preprorenin [7].
  • Southern analysis of mice from the second generation revealed that the mutant Ren1 and Ren2 were interchromosomally recombined at the loxP sites to produce a new dually mutated allele on the chromosome at the rate of 9.6% (7/73) [8].
  • In contrast, kidney renin levels appear to be unaffected by the gene duplication [9].
  • Moreover, a single base substitution of A for G at residue #996 in the kidney renin mRNA creates a potential glycosylation recognition site that may, in part, account for the differential glycosylation of kidney and submaxillary gland renins [9].
  • We have previously shown that strains with high levels of SMG renin, such as Swiss or AKR mice, have two renin genes, Rn1 and Rn2, per haploid genome, while strains with low levels of SMG, such as BALB/c or C57Bl/6, have only one renin gene [6].

Anatomical context of Ren1


Associations of Ren1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Ren1


Other interactions of Ren1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ren1


  1. Renin-promoter SV40 large T-antigen transgenes induce tumors irrespective of normal cellular expression of renin genes. Sola, C., Tronik, D., Dreyfus, M., Babinet, C., Rougeon, F. Oncogene Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Preparation of a specific high-titer antibody against rat kidney renin. Figueiredo, A.F., Inagami, T. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased energy expenditure, dietary fat wasting, and resistance to diet-induced obesity in mice lacking renin. Takahashi, N., Li, F., Hua, K., Deng, J., Wang, C.H., Bowers, R.R., Bartness, T.J., Kim, H.S., Harp, J.B. Cell Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. High resolution X-ray analyses of renin inhibitor-aspartic proteinase complexes. Foundling, S.I., Cooper, J., Watson, F.E., Cleasby, A., Pearl, L.H., Sibanda, B.L., Hemmings, A., Wood, S.P., Blundell, T.L., Valler, M.J. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. In vivo identification of a negative regulatory element in the mouse renin gene using direct gene transfer. Yamada, T., Horiuchi, M., Morishita, R., Zhang, L., Pratt, R.E., Dzau, V.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Kidney and submaxillary gland renins are encoded by two non-allelic genes in Swiss mice. Panthier, J.J., Rougeon, F. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA coding for mouse Ren1 preprorenin. Kim, W.S., Murakami, K., Nakayama, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Dual renin gene targeting by Cre-mediated interchromosomal recombination. Matsusaka, T., Kon, V., Takaya, J., Katori, H., Chen, X., Miyazaki, J., Homma, T., Fogo, A., Ichikawa, I. Genomics (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Tissue and gene specificity of mouse renin expression. Field, L.J., McGowan, R.A., Dickinson, D.P., Gross, K.W. Hypertension (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Mouse kidney renin gene is on chromosome one. Chirgwin, J.M., Schaefer, I.M., Diaz, J.A., Lalley, P.A. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Distinct renin isoforms generated by tissue-specific transcription initiation and alternative splicing. Lee-Kirsch, M.A., Gaudet, F., Cardoso, M.C., Lindpaintner, K. Circ. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of murine renin genes during fetal development. Jones, C.A., Sigmund, C.D., McGowan, R.A., Kane-Haas, C.M., Gross, K.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Purification of hog kidney renin with immobilized monoclonal antirenin. Dorer, F.E., Levine, M., Skeggs, L.T., Lentz, K.E., Kahn, J.R. Hypertension (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Thyroxine and testosterone transcriptionally regulate renin gene expression in the submaxillary gland of normal and transgenic mice carrying extra copies of the Ren2 gene. Tronik, D., Rougeon, F. FEBS Lett. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Reversal of the suppressed kidney renin level in the hypertensive transgenic rat TGR(mRen-2)27 by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Tokita, Y., Franco-Saenz, R., Mulrow, P.J. Am. J. Hypertens. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Retinoic acid-mediated activation of the mouse renin enhancer. Shi, Q., Gross, K.W., Sigmund, C.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Succinate receptor GPR91 provides a direct link between high glucose levels and renin release in murine and rabbit kidney. Toma, I., Kang, J.J., Sipos, A., Vargas, S., Bansal, E., Hanner, F., Meer, E., Peti-Peterdi, J. J. Clin. Invest. (2008) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunocytochemical localization of renin in kidneys and submandibular glands of SWR/J and C57BL/6J mice. Tanaka, T., Gresik, E.W., Michelakis, A.M., Barka, T. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Chronic dexamethasone treatment suppresses hypertension development in the transgenic rat TGR(mREN2)27. Djavidani, B., Sander, M., Kreutz, R., Zeh, K., Bader, M., Mellon, S.H., Vecsei, P., Peters, J., Ganten, D. J. Hypertens. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Ren1d and Ren2 cooperate to preserve homeostasis: evidence from mice expressing GFP in place of Ren1d. Pentz, E.S., Lopez, M.L., Kim, H.S., Carretero, O., Smithies, O., Gomez, R.A. Physiol. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Renin in the uterus of pregnant mice. Immunocytochemical, ultrastructural and biochemical studies. Rix, E., Hackenthal, E., Metz, J., Poulsen, K., Taugner, R. Histochemistry (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Evolution and variation of renin genes in mice. Dickinson, D.P., Gross, K.W., Piccini, N., Wilson, C.M. Genetics (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Application of immunochemical methods to the identification and characterization of rat kidney inactive renin. Takii, Y., Figueiredo, A.F., Inagami, T. Hypertension (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Studies of the regulation of mouse renin genes by measurement of renin messenger ribonucleic acid. Catanzaro, D.F., Mesterovic, N., Morris, B.J. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
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