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Gene Review

20S  -  DNA segment, 20S

Mus musculus

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Disease relevance of 20S

  • A mouse fibroblast line expressing the murine cytomegalovirus pp89 protein was transfected with either the human or murine gene encoding the PA28alpha subunit, which is sufficient to activate the peptide-hydrolysing activity of the 20S proteasome in vitro [1].
  • Early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome (map position 61-75) specifies two poly(A)+ nuclear RNAs (28S and 23S) that appear to be precursors of the 20S cytoplasmic mRNA [Goldenberg, C. J. & Raskas, H. J. (1979) Cell 16, 131-138] [2].
  • Elevated levels of total ubiquitinated proteins and 19S and 20S proteasome subunits are evident in both low-grade and high-grade ovarian carcinoma tissues relative to benign ovarian tumors and in ovarian carcinoma cell lines relative to immortalized surface epithelium [3].
  • Here, we report, for the first time, that Celastrol potently and preferentially inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome (IC(50) = 2.5 micromol/L) and human prostate cancer cellular 26S proteasome (at 1-5 micromol/L) [4].
  • Digestion of the extended vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein epitope 52-59 (RGYVYQGL) by the 20S proteasome in vitro shows that the proteasome is capable of generating the correct C terminus but not the exact N terminus of the CTL epitope [5].

High impact information on 20S


Biological context of 20S


Anatomical context of 20S

  • At least 36 distinct subunits (17 of 20S and 19 of 19S) are coexpressed and assembled as 26S proteasomes in this vital cardiac organelle, whereas the expression of PA200 and 11S subunits were detected with limited participation in the 26S complexes [16].
  • Digests of HSP60 polypeptides by 20S proteasomes show most efficient generation of the pathology related CD8(+) T cell epitope in the small intestine [11].
  • A hallmark of these so-called polyglutamine diseases is the presence of ubiquitylated inclusion bodies, which sequester various components of the 19S and 20S proteasomes [17].
  • Interference with both T cell growth and effector function was mediated by blockade of the catalytic activities of the 20S/26S proteasome complex, resulting in intracellular accumulation of IkappaB-alpha and subsequent inhibition of NF-kappaB activation [18].
  • The subunit protein composition of 20S proteasomes purified from liver, thymus, and lung reflected RNA expression [19].

Associations of 20S with chemical compounds

  • The papain superfamily member bleomycin hydrolase (Blmh) is a neutral cysteine protease with structural similarity to a 20S proteasome [20].
  • Total cellular polyadenylated Py-specific RNA molecules having an S value in the range of 16S to 20S were purified by oligodeoxythymidylic acidcellulose column chromatography, preparative hybridization with Py DNA, and sucrose gradient centrifugation [21].
  • Our data show that tetracycline-regulated expression of PA28 increases CTL epitope generation without affecting the 20S proteasome composition or half-life [22].
  • A potential molecular target was found: ritonavir selectively inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome [23].
  • After depletion of Mpp10p by growth in glucose, cell growth is arrested and levels of 18S and its 20S precursor are reduced or absent while the 23S and 35S precursors accumulate [24].

Physical interactions of 20S

  • The proteasome inhibitor PI31 competes with PA28 for binding to 20S proteasomes [25].
  • The mouse Lmp-2 gene is located within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region and encodes a subunit of the 20S cytosolic proteasome [26].
  • PA28alpha/beta is a regulatory complex of the 20S proteasome which consists of two IFN-gamma inducible subunits [27].
  • The 20S proteasome is the enzyme complex responsible for the processing of antigens bound by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules [28].

Regulatory relationships of 20S


Other interactions of 20S

  • AIRAP's association with the 19S cap reverses the stabilizing affect of ATP on the 26S proteasome during particle purification, and AIRAP-containing proteasomes, though constituted of 19S and 20S subunits, acquire features of hybrid proteasomes with both 19S and 11S regulatory caps [32].
  • 5080 T did not oligomerize beyond 5 to 10S in size compared with normal T, which oligomerized predominantly to 14 to 20S species [33].
  • This process of NQO1-regulated ODC degradation was recapitulated in vitro by using purified 20S proteasomes [34].
  • Two members of the proteasome activator, PA28alpha and PA28beta, form a heteropolymer that binds to both ends of the 20S proteasome [35].
  • These genetic data rigorously demonstrate control of the P3-450 (20S) mRNA induction process by the Ah receptor. pP(3)450-21 fragments hybridized to TCDD-induced C57BL/6N mRNA and to a portion of the cloned 5' end of the P1-450 gene from a mouse MOPC 41 plasmacytoma library.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[36]

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of 20S

  • Electron microscopy of the resulting structures revealed one PA28 ring at one end of the 20S particle and a 19S complex at the other [37].
  • SDS-PAGE analysis of the photoaffinity-labeled proteasome showed that low molecular weight bands (approximately 21-31 kDa) of 20S proteasome had the highest photoaffinity [38].
  • Samples of intact OVA and beta-galactosidase were subjected to digestion in vitro by 20S proteasome purified from bovine red cells and the resulting peptide mixtures were fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC [39].
  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies demonstrate that 20S and 26S proteasomes treated with PR39 or its derivatives exhibit serious perturbations in their structure and their normal allosteric movements [40].
  • There was also increased protein levels of the 20S proteasome core and 19S regulatory subunit, detectable by immunoblotting, suggesting activation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway [41].


  1. A role for the proteasome regulator PA28alpha in antigen presentation. Groettrup, M., Soza, A., Eggers, M., Kuehn, L., Dick, T.P., Schild, H., Rammensee, H.G., Koszinowski, U.H., Kloetzel, P.M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro splicing of purified precursor RNAs specified by early region 2 of the adenovirus 2 genome. Goldenberg, C.J., Raskas, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Ubiquitin-proteasome system stress sensitizes ovarian cancer to proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Bazzaro, M., Lee, M.K., Zoso, A., Stirling, W.L., Santillan, A., Shih, I.e.M., Roden, R.B. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Celastrol, a triterpene extracted from the Chinese "Thunder of God Vine," is a potent proteasome inhibitor and suppresses human prostate cancer growth in nude mice. Yang, H., Chen, D., Cui, Q.C., Yuan, X., Dou, Q.P. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Generation of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope requires proteasome-dependent and -independent proteolytic activities. Stoltze, L., Dick, T.P., Deeg, M., Pömmerl, B., Rammensee, H.G., Schild, H. Eur. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Coordinated dual cleavages induced by the proteasome regulator PA28 lead to dominant MHC ligands. Dick, T.P., Ruppert, T., Groettrup, M., Kloetzel, P.M., Kuehn, L., Koszinowski, U.H., Stevanović, S., Schild, H., Rammensee, H.G. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. A role for the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway in MHC class I-restricted antigen presentation. Michalek, M.T., Grant, E.P., Gramm, C., Goldberg, A.L., Rock, K.L. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Ornithine decarboxylase is degraded by the 26S proteasome without ubiquitination. Murakami, Y., Matsufuji, S., Kameji, T., Hayashi, S., Igarashi, K., Tamura, T., Tanaka, K., Ichihara, A. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Subunit of the '20S' proteasome (multicatalytic proteinase) encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. Ortiz-Navarrete, V., Seelig, A., Gernold, M., Frentzel, S., Kloetzel, P.M., Hämmerling, G.J. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of proteasome activities and subunit-specific amino-terminal threonine modification by lactacystin. Fenteany, G., Standaert, R.F., Lane, W.S., Choi, S., Corey, E.J., Schreiber, S.L. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Link between organ-specific antigen processing by 20S proteasomes and CD8(+) T cell-mediated autoimmunity. Kuckelkorn, U., Ruppert, T., Strehl, B., Jungblut, P.R., Zimny-Arndt, U., Lamer, S., Prinz, I., Drung, I., Kloetzel, P.M., Kaufmann, S.H., Steinhoff, U. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Interferon gamma stimulation modulates the proteolytic activity and cleavage site preference of 20S mouse proteasomes. Boes, B., Hengel, H., Ruppert, T., Multhaup, G., Koszinowski, U.H., Kloetzel, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Selective inhibitors of the osteoblast proteasome stimulate bone formation in vivo and in vitro. Garrett, I.R., Chen, D., Gutierrez, G., Zhao, M., Escobedo, A., Rossini, G., Harris, S.E., Gallwitz, W., Kim, K.B., Hu, S., Crews, C.M., Mundy, G.R. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Proteasomes play an essential role in thymocyte apoptosis. Grimm, L.M., Goldberg, A.L., Poirier, G.G., Schwartz, L.M., Osborne, B.A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Altered proteasomal function due to the expression of polyglutamine-expanded truncated N-terminal huntingtin induces apoptosis by caspase activation through mitochondrial cytochrome c release. Jana, N.R., Zemskov, E.A., Wang Gh, n.u.l.l., Nukina, N. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Mapping the murine cardiac 26S proteasome complexes. Gomes, A.V., Zong, C., Edmondson, R.D., Li, X., Stefani, E., Zhang, J., Jones, R.C., Thyparambil, S., Wang, G.W., Qiao, X., Bardag-Gorce, F., Ping, P. Circ. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Proteasome impairment does not contribute to pathogenesis in R6/2 Huntington's disease mice: exclusion of proteasome activator REGgamma as a therapeutic target. Bett, J.S., Goellner, G.M., Woodman, B., Pratt, G., Rechsteiner, M., Bates, G.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate mediates T cellular NF-kappa B inhibition and exerts neuroprotection in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Aktas, O., Prozorovski, T., Smorodchenko, A., Savaskan, N.E., Lauster, R., Kloetzel, P.M., Infante-Duarte, C., Brocke, S., Zipp, F. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular cloning of the mouse proteasome subunits MC14 and MECL-1: reciprocally regulated tissue expression of interferon-gamma-modulated proteasome subunits. Stohwasser, R., Standera, S., Peters, I., Kloetzel, P.M., Groettrup, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The neutral cysteine protease bleomycin hydrolase is essential for epidermal integrity and bleomycin resistance. Schwartz, D.R., Homanics, G.E., Hoyt, D.G., Klein, E., Abernethy, J., Lazo, J.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Electron microscopic mapping of RNA transcribed from the late region of polyoma virus DNA. Manor, H., Wu, M., Baran, N., Davidson, N. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential influence on cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope presentation by controlled expression of either proteasome immunosubunits or PA28. van Hall T, n.u.l.l., Sijts, A., Camps, M., Offringa, R., Melief, C., Kloetzel, P.M., Ossendorp, F. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. An inhibitor of HIV-1 protease modulates proteasome activity, antigen presentation, and T cell responses. André, P., Groettrup, M., Klenerman, P., de Giuli, R., Booth, B.L., Cerundolo, V., Bonneville, M., Jotereau, F., Zinkernagel, R.M., Lotteau, V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Mpp10p, a U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein component required for pre-18S rRNA processing in yeast. Dunbar, D.A., Wormsley, S., Agentis, T.M., Baserga, S.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. The proteasome inhibitor PI31 competes with PA28 for binding to 20S proteasomes. Zaiss, D.M., Standera, S., Holzhütter, H., Kloetzel, P., Sijts, A.J. FEBS Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Genomic organization and tissue expression of mouse proteasome gene Lmp-2. Zhou, P., Zanelli, E., Smart, M., David, C. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. The proteasome regulator PA28alpha/beta can enhance antigen presentation without affecting 20S proteasome subunit composition. Schwarz, K., Eggers, M., Soza, A., Koszinowski, U.H., Kloetzel, P.M., Groettrup, M. Eur. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Incorporation of major histocompatibility complex--encoded subunits LMP2 and LMP7 changes the quality of the 20S proteasome polypeptide processing products independent of interferon-gamma. Kuckelkorn, U., Frentzel, S., Kraft, R., Kostka, S., Groettrup, M., Kloetzel, P.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Inactivation of a defined active site in the mouse 20S proteasome complex enhances major histocompatibility complex class I antigen presentation of a murine cytomegalovirus protein. Schmidtke, G., Eggers, M., Ruppert, T., Groettrup, M., Koszinowski, U.H., Kloetzel, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. A third interferon-gamma-induced subunit exchange in the 20S proteasome. Groettrup, M., Kraft, R., Kostka, S., Standera, S., Stohwasser, R., Kloetzel, P.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Signalling pathways in the induction of proteasome expression by proteolysis-inducing factor in murine myotubes. Wyke, S.M., Khal, J., Tisdale, M.J. Cell. Signal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. An Arsenite-Inducible 19S Regulatory Particle-Associated Protein Adapts Proteasomes to Proteotoxicity. Stanhill, A., Haynes, C.M., Zhang, Y., Min, G., Steele, M.C., Kalinina, J., Martinez, E., Pickart, C.M., Kong, X.P., Ron, D. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Properties of a simian virus 40 mutant T antigen substituted in the hydrophobic region: defective ATPase and oligomerization activities and altered phosphorylation accompany an inability to complex with cellular p53. Tack, L.C., Cartwright, C.A., Wright, J.H., Eckhart, W., Peden, K.W., Srinivasan, A., Pipas, J.M. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. 20S proteasomal degradation of ornithine decarboxylase is regulated by NQO1. Asher, G., Bercovich, Z., Tsvetkov, P., Shaul, Y., Kahana, C. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunoproteasome assembly and antigen presentation in mice lacking both PA28alpha and PA28beta. Murata, S., Udono, H., Tanahashi, N., Hamada, N., Watanabe, K., Adachi, K., Yamano, T., Yui, K., Kobayashi, N., Kasahara, M., Tanaka, K., Chiba, T. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Regulation of mouse cytochrome P3-450 by the Ah receptor. Studies with a P3-450 cDNA clone. Tukey, R.H., Nebert, D.W. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  37. Properties of the hybrid form of the 26S proteasome containing both 19S and PA28 complexes. Cascio, P., Call, M., Petre, B.M., Walz, T., Goldberg, A.L. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Mechanism of specific nuclear transport of adriamycin: the mode of nuclear translocation of adriamycin-proteasome complex. Kiyomiya, K., Matsuo, S., Kurebe, M. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Proteolytic processing of ovalbumin and beta-galactosidase by the proteasome to a yield antigenic peptides. Dick, L.R., Aldrich, C., Jameson, S.C., Moomaw, C.R., Pramanik, B.C., Doyle, C.K., DeMartino, G.N., Bevan, M.J., Forman, J.M., Slaughter, C.A. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Proline- and arginine-rich peptides constitute a novel class of allosteric inhibitors of proteasome activity. Gaczynska, M., Osmulski, P.A., Gao, Y., Post, M.J., Simons, M. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Activation of ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in skeletal muscle in vivo and murine myoblasts in vitro by a proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF). Lorite, M.J., Smith, H.J., Arnold, J.A., Morris, A., Thompson, M.G., Tisdale, M.J. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
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