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Gene Review

Ctf1  -  cardiotrophin 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CT-1, Cardiotrophin-1
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Disease relevance of Ctf1

  • The treatment with adenovirus encoding CNTF, CT1 or IGF1, however, failed to protect these neurons after avulsion [1].
  • Moreover, we also investigated, for the first time whether CT-1 and urocortin can induce hypertrophy in cultured adult as opposed to neonatal cardiac cells [2].
  • Although tetanus toxin accumulated rapidly (within 8 h) at presynaptic sites, GDNF accumulated at synapses more slowly (within 15 h), and CT-1 never associated with synapses [3].
  • These findings suggest that IL-6 and LIF, but not CT-1, contribute to angiotensin II-dependent left ventricular hypertrophy in the two hypertensive rat models, TGR(mRen2)27 and SHR [4].
  • We suggest that CT-1 might facilitate LVH in genetic hypertension through a cross-talk with the renin-angiotensin system [5].

High impact information on Ctf1


Chemical compound and disease context of Ctf1


Biological context of Ctf1

  • CT-1 is released from the heart in response to hypoxic stress, and it protects cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis, thus establishing a central role for this cytokine in the cardiac stress response [11].
  • Together, the inhibitors completely blocked CT-1-dependent NF-kappa B activation and cytoprotection [11].
  • CT-1 also induced the degradation of the NF-kappa B cytosolic anchor, I kappa B, as well as the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappa B to the nucleus and increased expression of an NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene [11].
  • Overexpression of dominant-negative STAT3 mutant suppressed CT-1-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, but did not affect cell hypertrophy [12].
  • These findings reveal a specific cell-broadening effect of CT-1 in cardiomyocytes from adult SHR and suggest that the hypertensive phenotype of these cells may influence the hypertrophic effects of CT-1, probably by means of an exaggerated induction of angiotensinogen expression [5].

Anatomical context of Ctf1


Associations of Ctf1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Ctf1

  • These results identify urocortin as a novel hypertrophic and protective agent whose hypertrophic effect is mediated by a distinct pathway to that activated by CT-1, although the two factors mediate protection via the same pathway [2].
  • In the present study, CT-1 activated p38 and ERK MAPKs as well as Akt in cultured cardiac myocytes; these three pathways were activated in a parallel manner [11].
  • CT-1 also induced phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and ERK5 in cardiomyocytes, and those, too, were suppressed by overexpression of SOCSs [12].
  • In that regard, cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) activates several signaling pathways via gp130, and induces hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes [12].
  • BACKGROUND: Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a negative regulator of cytokine signaling whose expression is induced in the rat heart by cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) [18].

Other interactions of Ctf1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ctf1

  • The protein levels of IL-6, LIF and CT-1 were investigated by western blot [4].
  • Following 48 h of experimental procedures, the expression of all these four molecular markers of plasticity was reduced in SD and CT1 groups compared to the CT2 and cage control groups [19].
  • In vivo, CT-1 protected neonatal sciatic motoneurons against the effects of axotomy [20].
  • Only CT-1 mRNA expression could be detected by Northern blot, and it increased after pressure overload [21].
  • In this work we determine the activity of CT-1 in six in vitro biological assays and examine the composition of its cell surface receptor [22].


  1. Adenoviral gene transfer of GDNF, BDNF and TGF beta 2, but not CNTF, cardiotrophin-1 or IGF1, protects injured adult motoneurons after facial nerve avulsion. Sakamoto, T., Kawazoe, Y., Shen, J.S., Takeda, Y., Arakawa, Y., Ogawa, J., Oyanagi, K., Ohashi, T., Watanabe, K., Inoue, K., Eto, Y., Watabe, K. J. Neurosci. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Cardiotrophin-1 and urocortin cause protection by the same pathway and hypertrophy via distinct pathways in cardiac myocytes. Railson, J.E., Liao, Z., Brar, B.K., Buddle, J.C., Pennica, D., Stephanou, A., Latchman, D.S. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Synaptic targeting of retrogradely transported trophic factors in motoneurons: comparison of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and cardiotrophin-1 with tetanus toxin. Rind, H.B., Butowt, R., von Bartheld, C.S. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Increased expression of IL-6 and LIF in the hypertrophied left ventricle of TGR(mRen2)27 and SHR rats. Kurdi, M., Randon, J., Cerutti, C., Bricca, G. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Differential hypertrophic effects of cardiotrophin-1 on adult cardiomyocytes from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. L??pez, N., D??ez, J., Fortu??o, M.A. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression cloning of cardiotrophin 1, a cytokine that induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Pennica, D., King, K.L., Shaw, K.J., Luis, E., Rullamas, J., Luoh, S.M., Darbonne, W.C., Knutzon, D.S., Yen, R., Chien, K.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Interplay among cardiotrophin-1, prostaglandins, and vascular endothelial growth factor in rat liver regeneration. Beraza, N., Marqués, J.M., Martínez-Ansó, E., Iñiguez, M., Prieto, J., Bustos, M. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cardiotrophin-1 attenuates endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. Pulido, E.J., Shames, B.D., Pennica, D., O'leary, R.M., Bensard, D.D., Cain, B.S., McIntyre, R.C. J. Surg. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Cardiotrophin-1 increases angiotensinogen mRNA in rat cardiac myocytes through STAT3 : an autocrine loop for hypertrophy. Fukuzawa, J., Booz, G.W., Hunt, R.A., Shimizu, N., Karoor, V., Baker, K.M., Dostal, D.E. Hypertension (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostaglandin F2 alpha induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in vitro and cardiac growth in vivo. Lai, J., Jin, H., Yang, R., Winer, J., Li, W., Yen, R., King, K.L., Zeigler, F., Ko, A., Cheng, J., Bunting, S., Paoni, N.F. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The cytoprotective effects of the glycoprotein 130 receptor-coupled cytokine, cardiotrophin-1, require activation of NF-kappa B. Craig, R., Wagner, M., McCardle, T., Craig, A.G., Glembotski, C.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Hypertrophic responses to cardiotrophin-1 are not mediated by STAT3, but via a MEK5-ERK5 pathway in cultured cardiomyocytes. Takahashi, N., Saito, Y., Kuwahara, K., Harada, M., Tanimoto, K., Nakagawa, Y., Kawakami, R., Nakanishi, M., Yasuno, S., Usami, S., Yoshimura, A., Nakao, K. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Synergistic effects of schwann- and muscle-derived factors on motoneuron survival involve GDNF and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). Arce, V., Pollock, R.A., Philippe, J.M., Pennica, D., Henderson, C.E., deLapeyrière, O. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential regulation of cytokine expression following pilocarpine-induced seizure. Jankowsky, J.L., Patterson, P.H. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Cardiotrophin-1: expression in experimental myocardial infarction and potential role in post-MI wound healing. Freed, D.H., Moon, M.C., Borowiec, A.M., Jones, S.C., Zahradka, P., Dixon, I.M. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Teratogenic effects of bis-diamine on the developing myocardium. Okamoto, N., Nakagawa, M., Fujino, H., Nishijima, S., Hanato, T., Narita, T., Takeuchi, Y., Imanaka-Yoshida, K. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes. Zvonic, S., Hogan, J.C., Arbour-Reily, P., Mynatt, R.L., Stephens, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. SOCS1/JAB likely mediates the protective effect of cardiotrophin-1 against lipopolysaccharide-induced left ventricular dysfunction in vivo. Tanimoto, K., Saito, Y., Hamanaka, I., Kuwahara, K., Harada, M., Takahashi, N., Kawakami, R., Nakagawa, Y., Nakanishi, M., Adachi, Y., Shirakami, G., Fukuda, K., Yoshimura, A., Nakao, K. Circ. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Suppression of hippocampal plasticity-related gene expression by sleep deprivation in rats. Guzman-Marin, R., Ying, Z., Suntsova, N., Methippara, M., Bashir, T., Szymusiak, R., Gomez-Pinilla, F., McGinty, D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardiotrophin-1, a cytokine present in embryonic muscle, supports long-term survival of spinal motoneurons. Pennica, D., Arce, V., Swanson, T.A., Vejsada, R., Pollock, R.A., Armanini, M., Dudley, K., Phillips, H.S., Rosenthal, A., Kato, A.C., Henderson, C.E. Neuron (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Involvement of gp130-mediated signaling in pressure overload-induced activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in rodent heart. Pan, J., Fukuda, K., Kodama, H., Sano, M., Takahashi, T., Makino, S., Kato, T., Manabe, T., Hori, S., Ogawa, S. Heart and vessels. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Cardiotrophin-1. Biological activities and binding to the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor/gp130 signaling complex. Pennica, D., Shaw, K.J., Swanson, T.A., Moore, M.W., Shelton, D.L., Zioncheck, K.A., Rosenthal, A., Taga, T., Paoni, N.F., Wood, W.I. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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