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Gene Review

NPTX1  -  neuronal pentraxin I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: NP-I, NP1, Neuronal pentraxin I, Neuronal pentraxin-1
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Disease relevance of NPTX1

  • Of these, three proteins designated NP0, NP1, and NP2 of 68,000, 58,000, and 52,000 daltons, respectively, were stably associated with 50S RNA in CsCl gradient-purified nucleocapsids [1].
  • The sensitivity to taipoxin did not correlate with the expression levels of NP1 protein and NP2-mRNA, suggesting that expression of these proteins may not be required for taipoxin induced toxicity in SCLC [2].
  • The effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines, NP1, NP2 and NP3, were studied [3].
  • Expression of NP1 and NP2 was significantly higher in carcinomas than in benign tumors (P < .0001 and .0002, respectively) [4].
  • A/New Jersey/76 (Hsw 1N1) influenza virus also belongs to the NP1 group [5].

Psychiatry related information on NPTX1

  • Data were collected by means of a carer interview (including the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR)), patient assessment (including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and measures of corrected visual acuity) and photometric assessment of the room most frequently occupied by the subject [6].

High impact information on NPTX1

  • These studies support a model in which Narp can regulate the latent synaptogenic activity of NP1 by forming mixed pentraxin assemblies [7].
  • Neither anaerobiosis nor mitochondrial inhibitors substantially protected C. albicans exposed to NP-1, poly-L-arginine, poly-L-lysine, or mellitin [8].
  • Herein, we studied NP-1 during T cell development in the human thymus [9].
  • NP-1 is also found in thymic epithelial cells (TEC) in situ and in vitro, and is recruited at the site of TEC-thymocyte contact [9].
  • Semaphorin-3A (Sema-3A), a natural ligand of NP-1, is also present in human thymus, both in TEC and thymocytes, being up-regulated in thymocytes after TCR engagement [9].

Biological context of NPTX1


Anatomical context of NPTX1

  • Northern blot analysis reveals that NPII message is present in brain, testis, pancreas, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, so, unlike NPI, NPII is not exclusively localized to neurons [10].
  • Furthermore, NP1 protein was detected by Western blot analysis in a few SCLC-cell lines, but not in the control cell lines [2].
  • Moreover, NP-1 expression in the luminal epithelium was highly correlated with the degree of proliferation in these cells [11].
  • These are the first data to specify the hormonal regulation and cell-specific expression of NP-1 and NP-2 mRNA in the endometrium of both women and nonhuman primates [11].
  • NP-2 mRNA, unlike NP-1, was expressed only by the endothelium of veins, and in these cells, its expression was hormonally regulated in the converse manner: it was very low during the proliferative phase and high during the secretory phase [11].

Associations of NPTX1 with chemical compounds

  • Surprisingly, this tyrosine lies on the protein surface in NP1 and NP4 [15].
  • Previously, we utilized 4-iodopyrazole (4IPzH) as a heavy atom derivative for the initial solution of the crystal structure of the nitrophorin from Rhodnius prolixus, NP1, where it was found to bind to the heme with the iodo group disordered in two positions [16].
  • We studied the concentration of neurophysin I (hNPI) and II (hNPII), the hypothalamo-pituitary carriers of vasopressin and oxytocin, in CSF of depressed and schizophrenic patients and age matched controls [17].
  • Here we present three crystal structures of nitrophorin 1 (NP1): bound to cyanide, which binds in a manner similar to NO (2.3 A resolution); bound to histamine (2.0 A resolution); and bound to what appears to be NH3 from the crystallization solution (2.0 A resolution) [18].
  • Moreover, NP-1 was rapidly up-regulated during thymocyte stimulation by T cell receptor (TCR) and IL-7 or after adhesion to TEC [9].

Physical interactions of NPTX1

  • Here, we report that native Narp in brain is part of a pentraxin complex that includes NP1 [7].

Other interactions of NPTX1

  • Other newly identified long pentraxins are constitutively expressed proteins associated with sperm-egg fusion (apexin/p50), may function at the neuronal synapse (neuronal pentraxin I, NPI), or may serve yet other, unknown functions (NPII and XL-PXN1) [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPTX1

  • In this study, we investigated the cellular localization and hormonal regulation of NP-1 and NP-2 mRNA by in situ hybridization in the endometrium of ovariectomized, hormonally cycled rhesus macaques and women during the natural menstrual cycle [11].
  • The yeast two-hybrid assay has now been used to identify the specific domains on the NP that bind to the NPI proteins [12].
  • Sema-3A/NP-1 interaction down-modulated T cell activation since addition of Sema-3A in DC/T cell cocultures dramatically inhibited allogeneic T cell proliferation [20].
  • To address this, we developed two sensitive and specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays that target the HBoV NS1 and NP-1 genes [21].
  • Preliminary bioassay using crickets revealed that the analogs substituted by glutamate-type squaryl amino acid-containing NPTX 7A and 7B showed more potent paralytic activities than that of NPTX-8 [22].


  1. Proteins associated with human parainfluenza virus type 3. Jambou, R.C., Elango, N., Venkatesan, S. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Specific sensitivity of small cell lung cancer cell lines to the snake venom toxin taipoxin. Poulsen, T.T., Pedersen, N., Perin, M.S., Hansen, C.K., Poulsen, H.S. Lung Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines. Yamanaka, R., Tanaka, R., Yoshida, S. Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo) (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of semaphorins, vascular endothelial growth factor, and their common receptor neuropilins and alleic loss of semaphorin locus in epithelial ovarian neoplasms: increased ratio of vascular endothelial growth factor to semaphorin is a poor prognostic factor in ovarian carcinomas. Osada, R., Horiuchi, A., Kikuchi, N., Ohira, S., Ota, M., Katsuyama, Y., Konishi, I. Hum. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Oligopeptide mapping of NP proteins of influenza A viruses. Sokolov, B.P., Zhdanov, V.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  6. An investigation of visual hallucinosis and visual sensory status in dementia. Murgatroyd, C., Prettyman, R. International journal of geriatric psychiatry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Narp and NP1 form heterocomplexes that function in developmental and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Xu, D., Hopf, C., Reddy, R., Cho, R.W., Guo, L., Lanahan, A., Petralia, R.S., Wenthold, R.J., O'Brien, R.J., Worley, P. Neuron (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Modulation of the in vitro candidacidal activity of human neutrophil defensins by target cell metabolism and divalent cations. Lehrer, R.I., Ganz, T., Szklarek, D., Selsted, M.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Control of human thymocyte migration by Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A-mediated interactions. Lepelletier, Y., Smaniotto, S., Hadj-Slimane, R., Villa-Verde, D.M., Nogueira, A.C., Dardenne, M., Hermine, O., Savino, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Human neuronal pentraxin II (NPTX2): conservation, genomic structure, and chromosomal localization. Hsu, Y.C., Perin, M.S. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Cellular expression and hormonal regulation of neuropilin-1 and -2 messenger ribonucleic Acid in the human and rhesus macaque endometrium. Germeyer, A., Hamilton, A.E., Laughlin, L.S., Lasley, B.L., Brenner, R.M., Giudice, L.C., Nayak, N.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The NPI-1/NPI-3 (karyopherin alpha) binding site on the influenza a virus nucleoprotein NP is a nonconventional nuclear localization signal. Wang, P., Palese, P., O'Neill, R.E. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional interrelationships between cell membrane and cell wall in antimicrobial peptide-mediated killing of Staphylococcus aureus. Xiong, Y.Q., Mukhopadhyay, K., Yeaman, M.R., Adler-Moore, J., Bayer, A.S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Detection and separation of nucleoside-5'-monophosphates of DNA by conjugation with the fluorescent dye BODIPY and capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Cornelius, M., Wörth, C.G., Kliem, H.C., Wiessler, M., Schmeiser, H.H. Electrophoresis (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The crystal structure of nitrophorin 2. A trifunctional antihemostatic protein from the saliva of Rhodnius prolixus. Andersen, J.F., Montfort, W.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Axial ligand complexes of the Rhodnius nitrophorins: reduction potentials, binding constants, EPR spectra, and structures of the 4-iodopyrazole and imidazole complexes of NP4. Berry, R.E., Ding, X.D., Shokhireva, T.K.h., Weichsel, A., Montfort, W.R., Walker, F.A. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Cerebrospinal fluid neurophysins in affective illness and in schizophrenia. Linkowski, P., Geenen, V., Kerkhofs, M., Mendlewicz, J., Legros, J.J. European archives of psychiatry and neurological sciences. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structures of a nitric oxide transport protein from a blood-sucking insect. Weichsel, A., Andersen, J.F., Champagne, D.E., Walker, F.A., Montfort, W.R. Nat. Struct. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Long pentraxins: an emerging group of proteins with diverse functions. Goodman, A.R., Cardozo, T., Abagyan, R., Altmeyer, A., Wisniewski, H.G., Vilcek, J. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunosuppressive role of semaphorin-3A on T cell proliferation is mediated by inhibition of actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Lepelletier, Y., Moura, I.C., Hadj-Slimane, R., Renand, A., Fiorentino, S., Baude, C., Shirvan, A., Barzilai, A., Hermine, O. Eur. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Real-time PCR assays for detection of bocavirus in human specimens. Lu, X., Chittaganpitch, M., Olsen, S.J., Mackay, I.M., Sloots, T.P., Fry, A.M., Erdman, D.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Synthesis and paralytic activities of squaryl amino acid-containing polyamine toxins. Shinada, T., Nakagawa, Y., Hayashi, K., Corzo, G., Nakajima, T., Ohfune, Y. Amino Acids (2003) [Pubmed]
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