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Gene Review

TREM1  -  triggering receptor expressed on myeloid...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CD354, TREM-1, Triggering receptor expressed on monocytes 1, Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1
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Disease relevance of TREM1


Psychiatry related information on TREM1


High impact information on TREM1

  • TREM-1 is an activating receptor expressed at high levels on neutrophils and monocytes that infiltrate human tissues infected with bacteria [2].
  • These results demonstrate a critical function of TREM-1 in acute inflammatory responses to bacteria and implicate TREM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for septic shock [2].
  • Other TREM proteins regulate the differentiation and function of macrophages, microglia, dendritic cells, osteoclasts and platelets [6].
  • TREM proteins are a family of cell surface receptors that participate in diverse cell processes, including inflammation, bone homeostasis, neurological development and coagulation [6].
  • Together these data show that that TLT-1 does not function to inhibit members of the TREM family but instead may play a role in maintaining vascular hemostasis and regulating coagulation and inflammation at sites of injury [7].

Biological context of TREM1


Anatomical context of TREM1


Associations of TREM1 with chemical compounds

  • In addition, low levels of NTAL are correlated with decreased and delayed mobilization of Ca(2+) after TREM-1 triggering [9].
  • Up-regulation of TREM-1 expression was specific to PGE(2) among arachidonic acid metabolites, while ligands for chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells and the thomboxane-like prostanoid receptor failed to induce mTREM-1 expression [13].
  • Here we have shown that in monocytes TREM-1 mRNA levels, measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), remained unchanged and TREM-1 protein levels, measured by flow cytometry, increased, indicating that LPS increases TREM-1 expression by a post-transcriptional mechanism [14].

Regulatory relationships of TREM1

  • The human TREM gene cluster at 6p21.1 encodes both activating and inhibitory single IgV domain receptors and includes NKp44 [15].
  • Activation of TREM-1 expressed on PGE(2)-pretreated PBMC by an agonistic TREM-1 mAb significantly enhanced the production of IL-8 and TNF-alpha [13].

Other interactions of TREM1

  • To mediate activation, TREM-1 associates with the transmembrane adapter molecule DAP12 [12].
  • Nonbacterial TLR ligands such as polyinosine-polycytidylic acid and imidazoquinoline, as well as the TLR9 ligand CpG, did not impact TREM-1 expression [8].
  • Functionally, primary monocytes differentiated into immature dendritic cells following activation through TREM-1, evidenced by higher expression of CD1a, CD86, and MHC class II molecules [3].
  • (i) Spliced mRNAs encoding soluble forms of TREM-1 and TREM-2 (recently discovered inflammatory-signal-amplifying receptors) were regulated by BCG-CWS, resulting in their differential expression [16].
  • TREM-1 and MDL-1 RNA expression was also more elevated in adult than fetal tissues and in normal than malignant cells [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TREM1


  1. Modulation of hepatic granulomatous responses by transgene expression of DAP12 or TREM-1-Ig molecules. Nochi, H., Aoki, N., Oikawa, K., Yanai, M., Takiyama, Y., Atsuta, Y., Kobayashi, H., Sato, K., Tateno, M., Matsuno, T., Katagiri, M., Xing, Z., Kimura, S. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. TREM-1 amplifies inflammation and is a crucial mediator of septic shock. Bouchon, A., Facchetti, F., Weigand, M.A., Colonna, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. A role for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in host defense during the early-induced and adaptive phases of the immune response. Bleharski, J.R., Kiessler, V., Buonsanti, C., Sieling, P.A., Stenger, S., Colonna, M., Modlin, R.L. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells): a new player in acute inflammatory responses. Colonna, M., Facchetti, F. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of REM sleep on retroglossal cross-sectional area and compliance in normal subjects. Rowley, J.A., Sanders, C.S., Zahn, B.R., Badr, M.S. J. Appl. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. The TREM receptor family and signal integration. Klesney-Tait, J., Turnbull, I.R., Colonna, M. Nat. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. A TREM family member, TLT-1, is found exclusively in the alpha-granules of megakaryocytes and platelets. Washington, A.V., Schubert, R.L., Quigley, L., Disipio, T., Feltz, R., Cho, E.H., McVicar, D.W. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Cutting edge: expression patterns of surface and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in human endotoxemia. Knapp, S., Gibot, S., de Vos, A., Versteeg, H.H., Colonna, M., van der Poll, T. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Non-T Cell Activation Linker (NTAL) Negatively Regulates TREM-1/DAP12-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Myeloid Cells. Tessarz, A.S., Weiler, S., Zanzinger, K., Angelisová, P., Horejsí, V., Cerwenka, A. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in neutrophil inflammatory responses: differential regulation of activation and survival. Radsak, M.P., Salih, H.R., Rammensee, H.G., Schild, H. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. TREMs in the immune system and beyond. Colonna, M. Nat. Rev. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Cutting edge: inflammatory responses can be triggered by TREM-1, a novel receptor expressed on neutrophils and monocytes. Bouchon, A., Dietrich, J., Colonna, M. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced up-regulation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 expression on macrophages is regulated by endogenous prostaglandin e2. Murakami, Y., Kohsaka, H., Kitasato, H., Akahoshi, T. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1) is regulated post-transcriptionally and its ligand is present in the sera of some septic patients. Wong-Baeza, I., González-Roldán, N., Ferat-Osorio, E., Esquivel-Callejas, N., Aduna-Vicente, R., Arriaga-Pizano, L., Astudillo-de la Vega, H., Villasis-Keever, M.A., Torres-González, R., Estrada-García, I., López-Macías, C., Isibasi, A. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The human TREM gene cluster at 6p21.1 encodes both activating and inhibitory single IgV domain receptors and includes NKp44. Allcock, R.J., Barrow, A.D., Forbes, S., Beck, S., Trowsdale, J. Eur. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Mycobacterium bovis BCG cell wall-specific differentially expressed genes identified by differential display and cDNA subtraction in human macrophages. Begum, N.A., Ishii, K., Kurita-Taniguchi, M., Tanabe, M., Kobayashi, M., Moriwaki, Y., Matsumoto, M., Fukumori, Y., Azuma, I., Toyoshima, K., Seya, T. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. TREM-1, MDL-1, and DAP12 expression is associated with a mature stage of myeloid development. Gingras, M.C., Lapillonne, H., Margolin, J.F. Mol. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structure of human triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) at 1.47 A. Kelker, M.S., Foss, T.R., Peti, W., Teyton, L., Kelly, J.W., Wüthrich, K., Wilson, I.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of triggering receptor on myeloid cell 1 and histocompatibility complex molecules in sepsis and major abdominal surgery. González-Roldán, N., Ferat-Osorio, E., Aduna-Vicente, R., Wong-Baeza, I., Esquivel-Callejas, N., Astudillo-de la Vega, H., Sánchez-Fernández, P., Arriaga-Pizano, L., Villasís-Keever, M.A., López-Macías, C., Isibasi, A. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of TREM-1 mRNA in acute pancreatitis. Wang, D.Y., Qin, R.Y., Liu, Z.R., Gupta, M.K., Chang, Q. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Serial changes in soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells in the lung during development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Determann, R.M., Millo, J.L., Gibot, S., Korevaar, J.C., Vroom, M.B., van der Poll, T., Garrard, C.S., Schultz, M.J. Intensive care medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells: role in the diagnosis of lung infections. Richeldi, L., Mariani, M., Losi, M., Maselli, F., Corbetta, L., Buonsanti, C., Colonna, M., Sinigaglia, F., Panina-Bordignon, P., Fabbri, L.M. Eur. Respir. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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