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Gene Review

CYSLTR2  -  cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CYSLT2, CYSLT2R, CysLT(2), CysLTR2, Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2, ...
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Disease relevance of CYSLTR2


Psychiatry related information on CYSLTR2

  • Many drugs of abuse signal through receptors that couple to G proteins (GPCRs), so the factors that control GPCR signaling are likely to be important to the understanding of drug abuse [5].
  • Given the complexity of neurological disorders such as ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy, exploitation mGlu receptor-associated GPCR interactions may prove efficacious in the treatment of such disorders [6].

High impact information on CYSLTR2

  • Future high-resolution structural studies of rhodopsin and other GPCRs will form a basis to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanism of GPCR-mediated signal transduction [7].
  • Significantly, GPCR-containing CCPs are also functionally distinct, as their surface residence time is regulated locally by GPCR cargo via PDZ-dependent linkage to the actin cytoskeleton [8].
  • Our results reveal a novel function of betaarr1 as a cytoplasm-nucleus messenger in GPCR signaling and elucidate an epigenetic mechanism for direct GPCR signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus through signal-dependent histone modification [9].
  • A nuclear function of beta-arrestin1 in GPCR signaling: regulation of histone acetylation and gene transcription [9].
  • Our data suggest that OA1 represents the first example of an exclusively intracellular GPCR and support the hypothesis that GPCR-mediated signal transduction systems also operate at the internal membranes in mammalian cells [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of CYSLTR2

  • In PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, both agents block lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)- and bradykinin-stimulated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that intact focal adhesion complexes are required for GPCR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in these cells [11].
  • Here we report that a synthetic peptide derived from the NH2-terminal extracellular region of an orphan GPCR, GPR1 (GPR1ntP-(1-27); MEDLEETLFEEFENYSYDLDYYSLESC), inhibited infection of not only an HIV-1 variant that uses GPR1 as a co-receptor, but also X4, R5, and R5X4 viruses [12].

Biological context of CYSLTR2

  • METHODS: The association of CYSLTR2 polymorphisms with asthma was assessed by transmission disequilibrium test in two family-based collections (359 families from Denmark and Minnesota, USA and 384 families from the Genetics of Asthma International Network) [13].
  • We characterized the genomic structure of humans CYSLTR2, determined the putative major promoter region and conducted association studies pertaining to polymorphisms in CYSLTR2 and asthma [14].
  • OBJECTIVE: Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (CYSLTR2) is one of the receptors for the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CYSLTs), which cause bronchoconstrictions, vascular hyperpermeability and mucus hypersecretion in asthmatic patients [14].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified three novel exons in the 5' untranslated region of CYSLTR2 by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and identified eight novel polymorphisms in CYSLTR2 by direct sequencing [14].
  • METHODS: Gene expression of CysLTR1 and CysLTR2 mRNAs in human peripheral blood eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and T lymphocytes has been measured by competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions using RNA or DNA competitors [15].

Anatomical context of CYSLTR2


Associations of CYSLTR2 with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSIONS: Since 601A>G alters the potency of LTD4 and this variant allele may be associated with resistance to asthma, it is possible that modulation of the CYSLTR2 may be useful in asthma pharmacotherapy [13].
  • The potency of LTC4 and LTE4 was similar for both forms of the receptor and LTB4 was inactive, however, LTD4 was approximately five-fold less potent on 601A>G compared to wild-type CYSLTR2 [13].
  • To overcome the difficulty of characterizing the structures of the extracellular loops (eLPs) of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) other than rhodopsin, we have explored a strategy to generate a three-dimensional structural model for a GPCR, the thromboxane A(2) receptor [18].
  • The cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs), i.e. LTC(4), LTD(4) and LTE(4), trigger contractile and inflammatory processes through the specific interaction with cell surface receptors belonging to the purine receptor cluster of the rhodopsin family of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes [19].
  • We provide here structural evidence that the protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene (OA1), a pigment cell-specific integral membrane glycoprotein, represents a novel member of the GPCR superfamily and demonstrate that it binds heterotrimeric G proteins [10].
  • This response was mediated by CysLTR2 coupled to G(q/11), activation of phospholipase C, and inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate, and was enhanced further 2- to 5-fold by IFN-gamma stimulation [20].

Other interactions of CYSLTR2

  • BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CYSLTR) are potent biological mediators in the pathophysiology of asthma for which two receptors have been characterized, CYSLTR1 and CYSLTR2 [13].
  • The novel M202V CysLT2 receptor variant was associated with atopy (21%) on Tristan da Cunha compared with those who were non-atopic (7%) (Fisher's exact test, P=0.0016) in a manner that was independent of asthma (two-way ANOVA, P=0.0015) [21].
  • The former plays an important role in the control of cell growth that may serve as a prototypical G protein; the latter is a target for nitric oxide-mediated desensitization that may serve as a prototypical GPCR [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CYSLTR2


  1. The mast cell and the cysteinyl leukotrienes. Austen, K.F. Novartis Found. Symp. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 exerts a tonic brake on G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Sheffler, D.J., Kroeze, W.K., Garcia, B.G., Deutch, A.Y., Hufeisen, S.J., Leahy, P., Brüning, J.C., Roth, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation and motility involves epidermal growth factor receptor signal transactivation. Gschwind, A., Prenzel, N., Ullrich, A. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Charged residues at the intracellular boundary of transmembrane helices 2 and 3 independently affect constitutive activity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus G protein-coupled receptor. Ho, H.H., Ganeshalingam, N., Rosenhouse-Dantsker, A., Osman, R., Gershengorn, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins): novel central nervous system drug targets. Neubig, R.R. J. Pept. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Emerging signalling and protein interactions mediated via metabotropic glutamate receptors. Moldrich, R.X., Beart, P.M. Current drug targets. CNS and neurological disorders. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Rhodopsin: structural basis of molecular physiology. Menon, S.T., Han, M., Sakmar, T.P. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Cargo regulates clathrin-coated pit dynamics. Puthenveedu, M.A., von Zastrow, M. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A nuclear function of beta-arrestin1 in GPCR signaling: regulation of histone acetylation and gene transcription. Kang, J., Shi, Y., Xiang, B., Qu, B., Su, W., Zhu, M., Zhang, M., Bao, G., Wang, F., Zhang, X., Yang, R., Fan, F., Chen, X., Pei, G., Ma, L. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Ocular albinism: evidence for a defect in an intracellular signal transduction system. Schiaffino, M.V., d'Addio, M., Alloni, A., Baschirotto, C., Valetti, C., Cortese, K., Puri, C., Bassi, M.T., Colla, C., De Luca, M., Tacchetti, C., Ballabio, A. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Pleiotropic coupling of G protein-coupled receptors to the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Role of focal adhesions and receptor tyrosine kinases. Della Rocca, G.J., Maudsley, S., Daaka, Y., Lefkowitz, R.J., Luttrell, L.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The synthetic peptide derived from the NH2-terminal extracellular region of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR1, preferentially inhibits infection of X4 HIV-1. Jinno-Oue, A., Shimizu, N., Soda, Y., Tanaka, A., Ohtsuki, T., Kurosaki, D., Suzuki, Y., Hoshino, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. A coding polymorphism in the CYSLT2 receptor with reduced affinity to LTD4 is associated with asthma. Pillai, S.G., Cousens, D.J., Barnes, A.A., Buckley, P.T., Chiano, M.N., Hosking, L.K., Cameron, L.A., Fling, M.E., Foley, J.J., Green, A., Sarau, H.M., Schmidt, D.B., Sprankle, C.S., Blumenthal, M.N., Vestbo, J., Kennedy-Wilson, K., Wixted, W.E., Wagner, M.J., Anderson, W.H., Ignar, D.M. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Association between a polymorphism in cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 on chromosome 13q14 and atopic asthma. Fukai, H., Ogasawara, Y., Migita, O., Koga, M., Ichikawa, K., Shibasaki, M., Arinami, T., Noguchi, E. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Levels of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor mRNA in human peripheral leucocytes: significantly higher expression of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 mRNA in eosinophils. Mita, H., Hasegawa, M., Saito, H., Akiyama, K. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression and localization of the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor in human nasal mucosa. Shirasaki, H., Kanaizumi, E., Watanabe, K., Matsui, T., Sato, J., Narita, S., Rautiainen, M., Himi, T. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. The molecular characterization and tissue distribution of the human cysteinyl leukotriene CysLT(2) receptor. Takasaki, J., Kamohara, M., Matsumoto, M., Saito, T., Sugimoto, T., Ohishi, T., Ishii, H., Ota, T., Nishikawa, T., Kawai, Y., Masuho, Y., Isogai, T., Suzuki, Y., Sugano, S., Furuichi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. NMR structure of the thromboxane A2 receptor ligand recognition pocket. Ruan, K.H., Wu, J., So, S.P., Jenkins, L.A., Ruan, C.H. Eur. J. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular and functional aspects of human cysteinyl leukotriene receptors. Capra, V. Pharmacol. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. IFN-gamma induces cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 expression and enhances the responsiveness of human endothelial cells to cysteinyl leukotrienes. Woszczek, G., Chen, L.Y., Nagineni, S., Alsaaty, S., Harry, A., Logun, C., Pawliczak, R., Shelhamer, J.H. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. A cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor variant is associated with atopy in the population of Tristan da Cunha. Thompson, M.D., Storm van's Gravesande, K., Galczenski, H., Burnham, W.M., Siminovitch, K.A., Zamel, N., Slutsky, A., Drazen, J.M., George, S.R., Evans, J.F., O'Dowd, B.F. Pharmacogenetics (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Coupling interaction between thromboxane A2 receptor and alpha-13 subunit of guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Chou, K.C. J. Proteome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. G protein-coupled receptors: functional and mechanistic insights through altered gene expression. Rohrer, D.K., Kobilka, B.K. Physiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Trace amines: identification of a family of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors. Borowsky, B., Adham, N., Jones, K.A., Raddatz, R., Artymyshyn, R., Ogozalek, K.L., Durkin, M.M., Lakhlani, P.P., Bonini, J.A., Pathirana, S., Boyle, N., Pu, X., Kouranova, E., Lichtblau, H., Ochoa, F.Y., Branchek, T.A., Gerald, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis. Laporte, S.A., Oakley, R.H., Zhang, J., Holt, J.A., Ferguson, S.S., Caron, M.G., Barak, L.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
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