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Gene Review

YWHAG  -  tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 14-3-3 protein gamma, 14-3-3GAMMA, KCIP-1, PPP1R170, Protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1
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Disease relevance of YWHAG


Psychiatry related information on YWHAG


High impact information on YWHAG


Chemical compound and disease context of YWHAG

  • The selective protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X inhibits phorbol ester-induced morphological and functional differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells [12].

Biological context of YWHAG

  • PKCI increased radiation induced apoptosis in LM cells (5% to 20%) but reduced apoptosis slightly in AT cells [13].
  • The signal of low pH value was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor H-7 or Calphostin C (protein kinase C inhibitor), indicating the involvement of protein kinase C in the alternative splicing [14].
  • CD2 up-regulation appeared to be elicited by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism because it was abrogated by staurosporine, a potent protein kinase C inhibitor [15].
  • We wished to test the effect of a protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine (100 nmol/l) on the elevated antiport activity, and the degree of stimulation achieved by exogenous diacyl glycerol [16].
  • These phenomena appear to involve protein kinase C; two PMA analogs, 4 alpha-phorbol and 4 alpha-PMA, lacking the ability to activate protein kinase C fail to induce elevated levels of gene expression, and the protein kinase C inhibitor, H7 [1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride[, inhibits the enhancement induced by PMA [17].

Anatomical context of YWHAG

  • The human 14-3-3gamma gene (HGMW-approved symbol YWHAG) is highly expressed in brain, skeletal muscle, and heart [18].
  • These results demonstrate that the protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 has a specific and rapid effect on the actin cytoskeleton, and furthermore H-7 may have biochemical effects beyond those mediated by inhibition of protein kinase C or the cyclic nucleotide dependent kinases [19].
  • Protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 alters the actin cytoskeleton of cultured cells [19].
  • Forty-five minutes of exposure of Swiss 3T3 cells to 200 microM of either HA1004 (which is comparable to H-7 with respect to inhibition of cyclic nucleotide dependent kinases) or to the protein kinase C inhibitor sangivamycin did not induce the actin alterations characteristic of H-7 [19].
  • Contrasting actions of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, on human neutrophils and primary mouse epidermal cells [20].

Associations of YWHAG with chemical compounds

  • The protein kinase C inhibitor, sphingosine (10(-6) M), markedly attenuated responses to bradykinin [11].
  • Unlike ADP- or thrombin-induced PA, BL6 cell-induced PA was not inhibited by Calphostin-C (a potent protein kinase C inhibitor) or cilostazol (a potent inhibitor of PA based on inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase) [21].
  • In contrast, no significant inhibition of clustering was observed with protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, rapamycin, or heparin [22].
  • Incubation in protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine killed androgen-independent but not androgen-dependent cells [23].
  • Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of YWHAG


  1. Defective Bax activation in Hodgkin B-cell lines confers resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Kashkar, H., Krönke, M., Jürgensmeier, J.M. Cell Death Differ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. G-protein beta gamma subunits mediate specific phosphorylation of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SH-PTP1 induced by lysophosphatidic acid. Gaits, F., Li, R.Y., Bigay, J., Ragab, A., Ragab-Thomas, M.F., Chap, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The protein kinase C inhibitor, CGP 41 251, reverses decreased daunomycin uptake in a human drug-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line. Chorváth, B., Sedlák, J., Novotný, L. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of protein kinase C inhibitors on viral entry and infectivity. Constantinescu, S.N., Cernescu, C.D., Popescu, L.M. FEBS Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Altered expression of glutamate transporters under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Hsu, L., Rockenstein, E., Mallory, M., Hashimoto, M., Masliah, E. J. Neurosci. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Death by protein kinase C inhibitor: a stressful event. Clerk, A. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Transcellular activation of platelets and endothelial cells by bioactive lipids in platelet microparticles. Barry, O.P., Pratico, D., Lawson, J.A., FitzGerald, G.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid biogenesis and sensitization of secretory lysosomes in NK cells mediated by target-cell recognition. Liu, D., Xu, L., Yang, F., Li, D., Gong, F., Xu, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase by activation of muscarinic m3 receptors is dependent on integrin engagement by the extracellular matrix. Slack, B.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. No prevention of ischemic preconditioning by the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporine in swine. Vahlhaus, C., Schulz, R., Post, H., Onallah, R., Heusch, G. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of protein kinase C in bradykinin-induced increases in microvascular permeability. Murray, M.A., Heistad, D.D., Mayhan, W.G. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The selective protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X inhibits phorbol ester-induced morphological and functional differentiation of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Heikkilä, J., Jalava, A., Eriksson, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitor (PKCI) on radiation sensitivity and c-fos transcription. Choi, E.K., Rhee, Y.H., Park, H.J., Ahn, S.D., Shin, K.H., Park, K.K. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Exclusion of an alternatively spliced exon in human ATP synthase gamma-subunit pre-mRNA requires de novo protein synthesis. Endo, H., Matsuda, C., Kagawa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Stimulation through the TCR/CD3 complex up-regulates the CD2 surface expression on human T lymphocytes. Alberola-Ila, J., Places, L., de la Calle, O., Romero, M., Yagüe, J., Gallart, T., Vives, J., Lozano, F. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of protein kinase C modulators on the leucocyte Na+/H+ antiport in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects with albuminuria. Ng, L.L., Simmons, D., Frighi, V., Garrido, M.C., Bomford, J. Diabetologia (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Enhanced gene expression of the murine ecotropic retroviral receptor and its human homolog in proliferating cells. Yoshimoto, T., Yoshimoto, E., Meruelo, D. J. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal mapping of the human 14-3-3gamma gene (YWHAG) to 7q11.23. Horie, M., Suzuki, M., Takahashi, E., Tanigami, A. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Protein kinase C inhibitor H-7 alters the actin cytoskeleton of cultured cells. Birrell, G.B., Hedberg, K.K., Habliston, D.L., Griffith, O.H. J. Cell. Physiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Contrasting actions of staurosporine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, on human neutrophils and primary mouse epidermal cells. Sako, T., Tauber, A.I., Jeng, A.Y., Yuspa, S.H., Blumberg, P.M. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell membrane signaling as target in cancer therapy. II: Inhibitory effect of N,N,N-trimethylsphingosine on metastatic potential of murine B16 melanoma cell line through blocking of tumor cell-dependent platelet aggregation. Okoshi, H., Hakomori, S., Nisar, M., Zhou, Q.H., Kimura, S., Tashiro, K., Igarashi, Y. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Adhesion-independent alpha6beta4 integrin clustering is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Gilcrease, M.Z., Zhou, X., Welch, K. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. c-fos promoter insensitivity to phorbol ester and possible role of protein kinase C in androgen-independent cancer cells. Krongrad, A., Bai, G. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation. Schwalb, G., Beyers, A.D., Anderson, R., Nel, A.E. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Sequence analysis of the ryanodine receptor: possible association with a 12K, FK506-binding immunophilin/protein kinase C inhibitor. Collins, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Inductive effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae on differentiation of human monocytic tumor cell line U937. Hirose, K., Isogai, E., Mizugai, H., Miura, H., Ueda, I. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Protein kinase C regulates cytokine-induced tissue factor transcription and procoagulant activity in human endothelial cells. Terry, C.M., Callahan, K.S. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Update on the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. Yam, J.C., Kwok, A.K.h. Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine (2007) [Pubmed]
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