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Gene Review

UCN2  -  urocortin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: SRP, Stresscopin-related peptide, UCN-II, UCNI, UR, ...
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Disease relevance of UCN2


Psychiatry related information on UCN2


High impact information on UCN2

  • It should be noted that, in all the experiments performed in which the role of SRP in cotranslational protein translocation is circumvented (Jungnickel and Rapoport, 1995; Lauring et al., 1995a, 1995b), stable translocation intermediates are allowed many minutes to establish productive interactions with the membrane [7].
  • It is possible that, under these conditions, productive translocation even in the absence of NAC would require SRP [7].
  • We show here that glycosylation and insertion of the asialoglycoprotein receptor into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is cotranslational and SRP-dependent and occurs without proteolytic cleavage [8].
  • Urocortin 2 modulates glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle [9].
  • These results demonstrate that one of several pathways for protein routing to the thylakoids is homologous to the SRP pathway and point to a common evolutionary origin for the protein transport systems of the endoplasmic reticulum and the thylakoid membrane [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of UCN2

  • Using the structures of the E. coli Ffh/4.5S core and of the human SRP54m dimer as templates, a molecular model of the complex between human SRP RNA helix 8 and a single SRP54M molecule was constructed in which Leucine 329 was positioned in closer proximity to the RNA binding domain [11].
  • METHODS: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to three groups: SRP+500 mg of systemic tetracycline twice/day for 14 days; SRP alone and SRP+tetracycline fibers (Actsite) at four selected sites for 10 days [12].
  • METHOD: After baseline clinical and microbiological monitoring, 17 adult periodontitis subjects received full mouth SRP and 14 days systemic administration of either metronidazole (250 mg, TID, n=8) or amoxicillin (500 mg, TID, n=9) [13].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Use of the chlorhexidine chip has significantly improved the clinical parameters of periodontitis when used as an adjunct to SRP [14].

Biological context of UCN2

  • Treatment of primary human myometrial cells with UCN II to specifically activate CRH-R2 resulted in a dose-dependent increase of myosin light chain (MLC(20)) phosphorylation [15].
  • Thus SCP and SRP might represent endogenous ligands for maintaining homeostasis after stress, and could allow the design of drugs to ameliorate stress-related diseases [1].
  • Here, we investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 0.25, 0.75, 1.50 or 3nmol/rat of Ucn II or Ucn III on food and water intake in food deprived rats [16].
  • The endometrial expression of urocortin II mRNA was significantly (P<.01) higher in the early proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle than in other phases and maternal decidua (MD), whereas that of urocortin III mRNA was higher (P<.01) in MD than in all other endometrial samples [17].
  • Comparative genomics of the endocrine systems in humans and chimpanzees with special reference to GNRH2 and UCN2 and their receptors [18].

Anatomical context of UCN2

  • In this study we investigated the expression of urocortin II (UCN II) in human myometrium and its ability to phosphorylate intracellular components that can be involved in modulating myometrial contractility [15].
  • Human endometrium expresses urocortin II and III messenger RNA and peptides [17].
  • Here, we detected urocortin 2 mRNA in PC12 cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [2].
  • Urocortin 2, a new member of the corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) neuropeptide family, was reported to be widely expressed in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues [2].
  • Physiologic data show that urocortin II, which binds selectively to CRF-R2alpha, increases the firing rate of both Purkinje cells and nuclear neurons; this response can be blocked by the CRF-R2alpha-specific antagonist, antisauvagine-30 [19].

Associations of UCN2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of UCN2

  • Using RT-PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that UCN II and type-2 CRH receptor (CRH-R2) mRNAs were expressed in human nonpregnant and pregnant myometrium [15].
  • More importantly, we demonstrate that SCP and SRP are able to protect cardiomyocytes even if they are administered after the hypoxic insult and prior to reoxygenation [22].
  • Furthermore, SCP and SRP protect cardiomyocytes better than UCN at concentrations up to and including 10(-10) M and reduced the amount of TUNEL positive cells almost by half at concentrations of 10(-12) to 10(-10) M [22].
  • Furthermore, the CRFR2-selective antagonist, astressin 2B, prevented the inhibition of estrous behavior by UCN2 and by NPY, consistent with a role for CRFR2 [23].
  • Pretreatment with N/OFQ (0.25-2.0nmol/rat) did not block the effects of Ucn II and UCNIII [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of UCN2

  • Primary cell cultures of cerebella from embryonic day 18 mice were established, and cells were treated for either 1, 5 or 9 days with Basal Medium Eagles complete medium alone or complete medium with 1 microM CRF, urocortin, or urocortin II [24].
  • The interaction of protein SRP54M from the human signal recognition particle with SRP RNA was studied by systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the RNA molecule [25].
  • SRP-RNA sequence alignment and secondary structure [26].
  • DESIGN: A modified Puritan-Bennett 1600 jet nebulizer was tested with a large reservoir (LR; 250 mL), medium reservoir (MR; 45 mL), and small reservoir with infusion pump (SRP; 18 mL) [27].
  • Western blot analysis demonstrated that osmotic lysis of the sedimentable organelles (lutoids) in vitro caused the release of REF and SRPP from the rubber particle membrane into the cytosol [28].


  1. Human stresscopin and stresscopin-related peptide are selective ligands for the type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Hsu, S.Y., Hsueh, A.J. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of urocortin 2 and its inhibitory effects on intracellular ca(2+) via L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Tao, J., Zhang, Y., Soong, T.W., Li, S. Neuropsychopharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Urocortin II inhibits the apoptosis of mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells via L-type calcium channels in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Tao, J., Zhang, Y., Soong, T.W., Li, S. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Urocortins and corticotropin releasing factor type 2 receptors in the hypothalamus and the cardiovascular system. Hashimoto, K., Nishiyama, M., Tanaka, Y., Noguchi, T., Asaba, K., Hossein, P.N., Nishioka, T., Makino, S. Peptides (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibody in patients with and patients without idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Kao, A.H., Lacomis, D., Lucas, M., Fertig, N., Oddis, C.V. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Pain after periodontal scaling and root planing. Pihlstrom, B.L., Hargreaves, K.M., Bouwsma, O.J., Myers, W.R., Goodale, M.B., Doyle, M.J. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. A second signal recognition event required for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. Siegel, V. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. An internal signal sequence: the asialoglycoprotein receptor membrane anchor. Spiess, M., Lodish, H.F. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Urocortin 2 modulates glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Chen, A., Brar, B., Choi, C.S., Rousso, D., Vaughan, J., Kuperman, Y., Kim, S.N., Donaldson, C., Smith, S.M., Jamieson, P., Li, C., Nagy, T.R., Shulman, G.I., Lee, K.F., Vale, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. A chloroplast homologue of the signal recognition particle subunit SRP54 is involved in the posttranslational integration of a protein into thylakoid membranes. Li, X., Henry, R., Yuan, J., Cline, K., Hoffman, N.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of human protein SRP54: interactions with signal recognition particle RNA and modes of signal peptide recognition. Huang, Q., Abdulrahman, S., Yin, J., Zwieb, C. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibiotic resistance profile of the subgingival microbiota following systemic or local tetracycline therapy. Rodrigues, R.M., Gonçalves, C., Souto, R., Feres-Filho, E.J., Uzeda, M., Colombo, A.P. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Change in subgingival microbial profiles in adult periodontitis subjects receiving either systemically-administered amoxicillin or metronidazole. Feres, M., Haffajee, A.D., Allard, K., Som, S., Socransky, S.S. Journal of clinical periodontology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessing the effectiveness of locally delivered chlorhexidine in the treatment of periodontitis. Killoy, W.J. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Urocortin II is expressed in human pregnant myometrial cells and regulates myosin light chain phosphorylation: potential role of the type-2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the control of myometrial contractility. Karteris, E., Hillhouse, E.W., Grammatopoulos, D. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of the Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ system is unable to reverse CRF(2) receptor mediated anorexia in the rat. Fedeli, A., Policani, F., Ubaldi, M., Cippitelli, A., Massi, M., Ciccocioppo, R. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Human endometrium expresses urocortin II and III messenger RNA and peptides. Florio, P., Torres, P.B., Torricelli, M., Toti, P., Vale, W., Petraglia, F. Fertil. Steril. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparative genomics of the endocrine systems in humans and chimpanzees with special reference to GNRH2 and UCN2 and their receptors. Ikemoto, T., Park, M.K. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for the presence of the type 2 corticotropin releasing factor receptor in the rodent cerebellum. Bishop, G.A., Tian, J.B., Stanke, J.J., Fischer, A.J., King, J.S. J. Neurosci. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase and modulation of the guanylate cyclase activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone but not urocortin II or urocortin III in cultured human pregnant myometrial cells. Aggelidou, E., Hillhouse, E.W., Grammatopoulos, D.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The action of urocortins on body temperature in rats. Telegdy, G., Adamik, A., Tóth, G. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Protective effects of the urocortin homologues stresscopin (SCP) and stresscopin-related peptide (SRP) against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Chanalaris, A., Lawrence, K.M., Stephanou, A., Knight, R.D., Hsu, S.Y., Hsueh, A.J., Latchman, D.S. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtypes mediating nutritional suppression of estrous behavior in Syrian hamsters. Seymour, P.L., Dettloff, S.L., Jones, J.E., Wade, G.N. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin promote the survival of cultured cerebellar GABAergic neurons through the type 1 CRF receptor. Choi, J.S., Pham, T.T., Jang, Y.J., Bui, B.C., Lee, B.H., Joo, K.M., Cha, C.I., Lee, K.H. J. Korean Med. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Binding site of the M-domain of human protein SRP54 determined by systematic site-directed mutagenesis of signal recognition particle RNA. Gowda, K., Chittenden, K., Zwieb, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. SRP-RNA sequence alignment and secondary structure. Larsen, N., Zwieb, C. Nucleic Acids Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Four hours of continuous albuterol nebulization. Berlinski, A., Waldrep, J.C. Chest (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of polypeptides accumulated in the latex cytosol of rubber trees affected by the tapping panel dryness syndrome. Sookmark, U., Pujade-Renaud, V., Chrestin, H., Lacote, R., Naiyanetr, C., Seguin, M., Romruensukharom, P., Narangajavana, J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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