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Gene Review

Crh  -  corticotropin releasing hormone

Mus musculus

Synonyms: CRF, Corticoliberin, Corticotropin-releasing factor, Corticotropin-releasing hormone, Gm1347, ...
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Disease relevance of Crh


Psychiatry related information on Crh


High impact information on Crh


Chemical compound and disease context of Crh


Biological context of Crh

  • Our findings suggest that during inflammation, IL-6 most likely compensates for the effects of CRH deficiency on food intake [19].
  • However, CRH and vasopressin (AVP) mRNA levels in the transgenic mice are increased by 82 and 35%, respectively, to compensate for the excess CRH-BP, consistent with the idea that CRH-BP levels are important for homeostasis [20].
  • The data show that long-term GR dysfunction can be associated with reduced activity of CRH neurons in the PVN and decreased sensitivity of pituitary CRH-R1 mRNA to stimulus-induced downregulation [21].
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone is a main regulator of mammalian stress response by stimulating pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression, and thus adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion, which then causes glucocorticoid release from the adrenal [22].
  • After treatment with CRH, intracellular POMC-luciferase activity was significantly higher from the stimulation observed with transfection of the parental POMC-luciferase construct [22].

Anatomical context of Crh


Associations of Crh with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, toxin A administration in Crh(-/-) mice fails to result in an increased SP content [2].
  • We demonstrate that during inflammation CRH is required for a normal adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) increase but not for adrenal corticosterone rise [19].
  • These CRF-stimulated effects were also blocked by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone [1].
  • CRF-induced increases in phospholipid methylation and ACTH secretion were reduced when cells were treated with the phospholipid methyltransferase inhibitors 3-deazaadenosine and L-homocysteine thiolactone [1].
  • The methionine sulfoxide derivative of CRF was less potent than CRF was in stimulating both phospholipid methylation and hormone secretion, and the COOH-terminal free acid analogue of CRF had no effect on either process [1].

Physical interactions of Crh

  • Although DEX treatment of AtT-20 cells did not affect AP-1 DNA binding capacity of nuclear extracts, DEX pretreatment blunted the stimulation of AP-1 binding in response to CRF [25].
  • Further, CRF has been shown to contribute to excitability of hippocampal neurons during embryonic development by binding to CRF-R1; depolarization induced excitability appears to be critical for cell survival [26].
  • CRH and PKA rapidly increase nuclear DNA binding activity of NGFI-B dimers but not monomers [27].

Co-localisations of Crh

  • The activity of the PVN CRF cells was estimated from the number of PVN cells colocalizing CRF mRNA and the protein Fos [28].

Regulatory relationships of Crh


Other interactions of Crh


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Crh


  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates phospholipid methylation and corticotropin secretion in mouse pituitary tumor cells. Hook, V.Y., Heisler, S., Axelrod, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) requirement in Clostridium difficile toxin A-mediated intestinal inflammation. Anton, P.M., Gay, J., Mykoniatis, A., Pan, A., O'Brien, M., Brown, D., Karalis, K., Pothoulakis, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduced cerebral injury in CRH-R1 deficient mice after focal ischemia: a potential link to microglia and atrocytes that express CRH-R1. Stevens, S.L., Shaw, T.E., Dykhuizen, E., Lessov, N.S., Hill, J.K., Wurst, W., Stenzel-Poore, M.P. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Modulation of urocortin-induced hypophagia and weight loss by corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 deficiency in mice. Bradbury, M.J., McBurnie, M.I., Denton, D.A., Lee, K.F., Vale, W.W. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Corticotropin-releasing factor is cytoprotective in Xenopus tadpole tail: coordination of ligand, receptor, and binding protein in tail muscle cell survival. Boorse, G.C., Kholdani, C.A., Seasholtz, A.F., Denver, R.J. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 pathway mediates the negative affective states of opiate withdrawal. Contarino, A., Papaleo, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Dissociation of locomotor activation and suppression of food intake induced by CRF in CRFR1-deficient mice. Contarino, A., Dellu, F., Koob, G.F., Smith, G.W., Lee, K.F., Vale, W.W., Gold, L.H. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of molecules potentially involved in mediating the in vivo actions of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 antagonist, NBI30775 (R121919). Post, A., Ohl, F., Almeida, O.F., Binder, E.B., Rücker, M., Welt, S., Binder, E., Holsboer, F., Sillaber, I. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential disinhibition of the neonatal hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal axis in brain-specific CRH receptor 1-knockout mice. Schmidt, M.V., Deussing, J.M., Oitzl, M.S., Ohl, F., Levine, S., Wurst, W., Holsboer, F., M??ller, M.B., de Kloet, E.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Urocortin-deficient mice show hearing impairment and increased anxiety-like behavior. Vetter, D.E., Li, C., Zhao, L., Contarino, A., Liberman, M.C., Smith, G.W., Marchuk, Y., Koob, G.F., Heinemann, S.F., Vale, W., Lee, K.F. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Mice deficient for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor-2 display anxiety-like behaviour and are hypersensitive to stress. Bale, T.L., Contarino, A., Smith, G.W., Chan, R., Gold, L.H., Sawchenko, P.E., Koob, G.F., Vale, W.W., Lee, K.F. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Adiponectin acts in the brain to decrease body weight. Qi, Y., Takahashi, N., Hileman, S.M., Patel, H.R., Berg, A.H., Pajvani, U.B., Scherer, P.E., Ahima, R.S. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Corticotropin-releasing hormone deficiency reveals major fetal but not adult glucocorticoid need. Muglia, L., Jacobson, L., Dikkes, P., Majzoub, J.A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Interleukin-6 is a needed proinflammatory cytokine in the prolonged neural activity and transcriptional activation of corticotropin-releasing factor during endotoxemia. Vallières, L., Rivest, S. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. CRH deficiency impairs but does not block pituitary-adrenal responses to diverse stressors. Jacobson, L., Muglia, L.J., Weninger, S.C., Pac¿ak, K., Majzoub, J.A. Neuroendocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Corticotropin-releasing factor-induced adrenocorticotropin hormone release and synthesis is blocked by incorporation of the inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase into anterior pituitary tumor cells by liposomes. Reisine, T., Rougon, G., Barbet, J., Affolter, H.U. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of a corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein in the plasma membrane of AtT-20 mouse pituitary tumor cells and its regulation by dexamethasone. Rosendale, B.E., Jarrett, D.B., Robinson, A.G. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Reduced corticotropin-releasing factor and enhanced vasopressin gene expression in brains of mice with autoimmunity-induced behavioral dysfunction. Sakić, B., Laflamme, N., Crnic, L.S., Szechtman, H., Denburg, J.A., Rivest, S. J. Neuroimmunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Corticotropin-releasing hormone regulates IL-6 expression during inflammation. Venihaki, M., Dikkes, P., Carrigan, A., Karalis, K.P. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Excess corticotropin releasing hormone-binding protein in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in transgenic mice. Burrows, H.L., Nakajima, M., Lesh, J.S., Goosens, K.A., Samuelson, L.C., Inui, A., Camper, S.A., Seasholtz, A.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Reduced activity of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons in transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function. Dijkstra, I., Tilders, F.J., Aguilera, G., Kiss, A., Rabadan-Diehl, C., Barden, N., Karanth, S., Holsboer, F., Reul, J.M. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. NF-kappaB participates in the corticotropin-releasing, hormone-induced regulation of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin gene. Karalis, K.P., Venihaki, M., Zhao, J., van Vlerken, L.E., Chandras, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Corticotropin-releasing hormone activates ERK1/2 MAPK in specific brain areas. Refojo, D., Echenique, C., Müller, M.B., Reul, J.M., Deussing, J.M., Wurst, W., Sillaber, I., Paez-Pereda, M., Holsboer, F., Arzt, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Corticotropin-releasing factor and the urocortins induce the expression of TLR4 in macrophages via activation of the transcription factors PU.1 and AP-1. Tsatsanis, C., Androulidaki, A., Alissafi, T., Charalampopoulos, I., Dermitzaki, E., Roger, T., Gravanis, A., Margioris, A.N. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Glucocorticoid regulation of c-fos, c-jun and transcription factor AP-1 in the AtT-20 corticotrope cell. Autelitano, D.J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Localization of the type 1 corticotropin releasing factor receptor (CRF-R1) in the embryonic mouse cerebellum. King, J.S., Bishop, G.A. J. Neurocytol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Dimer-specific potentiation of NGFI-B (Nur77) transcriptional activity by the protein kinase A pathway and AF-1-dependent coactivator recruitment. Maira, M., Martens, C., Batsché, E., Gauthier, Y., Drouin, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of leptin on corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) synthesis and CRF neuron activation in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of obese (ob/ob) mice. Huang, Q., Rivest, R., Richard, D. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Leptin rapidly inhibits hypothalamic neuropeptide Y secretion and stimulates corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion in adrenalectomized mice. Jang, M., Mistry, A., Swick, A.G., Romsos, D.R. J. Nutr. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in MA-10 mouse cells. Huang, B.M., Stocco, D.M., Li, P.H., Yang, H.Y., Wu, C.M., Norman, R.L. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of leptin and corticosterone on the expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone, agouti-related protein, and proopiomelanocortin in the brain of ob/ob mouse. Arvaniti, K., Huang, Q., Richard, D. Neuroendocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Urocortin 2 suppresses host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection via up-regulation of interleukin-10. Sashinami, H., Kageyama, K., Suda, T., Nakane, A. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress in mice lacking functional vasopressin V1b receptors. Lolait, S.J., Stewart, L.Q., Jessop, D.S., Young, W.S., O'Carroll, A.M. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Urocortin-II and urocortin-III are cardioprotective against ischemia reperfusion injury: an essential endogenous cardioprotective role for corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 in the murine heart. Brar, B.K., Jonassen, A.K., Egorina, E.M., Chen, A., Negro, A., Perrin, M.H., Mjøs, O.D., Latchman, D.S., Lee, K.F., Vale, W. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Severity of the catabolic condition differentially modulates hypothalamic expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone in the fasted mouse: potential role of neuropeptide y and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Luque, R.M., Park, S., Kineman, R.D. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  36. Animal models of CRH excess and CRH receptor deficiency display altered adaptations to stress. Coste, S.C., Murray, S.E., Stenzel-Poore, M.P. Peptides (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Corticotropin-releasing factor type-1 receptor mRNA is not induced in mouse hypothalamus by either stress or osmotic stimulation. Imaki, T., Katsumata, H., Konishi, S.I., Kasagi, Y., Minami, S. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Ethanol augments GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala via CRF1 receptors. Nie, Z., Schweitzer, P., Roberts, A.J., Madamba, S.G., Moore, S.D., Siggins, G.R. Science (2004) [Pubmed]
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