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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Axilla

  • The 131I-labeled anti-breast cancer antibody (RCC-1; 400 micrograms) and cold iodine-labeled "blocking" antibody (Ly-2.1; 2 mg which is nonreactive with breast cancer) were injected s.c. into both arms and scintigraphy images were obtained 16-18 h after the injection, using the axilla contralateral to the side of the breast cancer as the control [1].
  • Skin biopsies from the axilla were examined in 7 patients with clinical signs and symptoms of Lafora's disease, in 9 relatives (7 parents and 2 siblings), and in 17 patients with chronic or progressive degenerative neurological disorders and chronic epilepsy, who served as controls [2].
  • The protein has been detected as a regular epidermal component in skin samples from different body sites, albeit as a minor CK in "soft skin" (e.g., breast nipple, penile shaft, axilla), but not in foreskin epithelium and in other epithelia, in squamous metaplasias and carcinomas, or in cultured cell lines derived therefrom [3].
  • Antibiotic resistance patterns of aerobic coryneforms and furazolidone-resistant Gram-positive cocci from the skin surface of the human axilla and fourth toe cleft [4].
  • In incubations containing 5,16-androstadien-3-ol, mixed populations of Corynebacterium spp., isolated from the axilla, could generate many different 16-androstene metabolites, several of which were odorous [5].

High impact information on Axilla

  • A mean of 2.7 days after the start of the treatment, development of ciprofloxacin resistance was detected in S epidermidis from the axilla of all persons, compared with 11 days for the appearance of resistant S epidermidis in nostrils [6].
  • All patients had positive axillary nodes on dissection, had no gross residual disease in the breast or axilla after surgery, and received breast irradiation (with or without nodal irradiation) and three or more cycles of a cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF)-based or doxorubicin-containing regimen [7].
  • The known axilla odor determinant 3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid was identified in hydrolyzed axilla secretions along with a chemically related compound, 3-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid [8].
  • From liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, it appeared that the acids are covalently linked to a glutamine residue in fresh axilla secretions, and the corresponding conjugates were synthesized for confirmation [8].
  • A specific bacterial aminoacylase cleaves odorant precursors secreted in the human axilla [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Axilla


Biological context of Axilla

  • The role of breast conservation therapy (limited surgery and irradiation of the breast with/without axilla) in the approximately 5% of breast cancer patients who harbour a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, is a largely unexplored area and is seen by some as controversial [14].

Anatomical context of Axilla

  • The capabilities and limitations of two-(2D) and three-dimensional (3D) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in detecting small tumors and lymph nodes were studied in a phantom modeling the human chest and axilla [15].
  • Cultures of the nares (sensitivity, 93%; negative predictive value, 95%) were considerably more valuable for the detection of MRSA colonization than were cultures of cutaneous sites of the axilla, groin, and perineum (sensitivity, < or = 39%; negative predictive value, < or = 69%) [16].
  • Immunoreactivity for GCDFP-15 was localized within Paget cells in six of our seven cases, including five cases from the vulva and one case from the axilla [17].
  • During one visit, each volunteer received a sympathetic block to the upper extremity by an injection of lidocaine into the brachial plexus at the axilla [18].
  • Mean defibrillation threshold for the right ventricle (RV) and superior vena cava configuration was 13.3 +/- 5 J, which was significantly lower than the RA and axilla configuration (20.1 +/- 7.4 J, p < 0.04) but not the RV to RA configuration (16.5 +/- 11 J, p > 0.2) [19].

Associations of Axilla with chemical compounds


Gene context of Axilla

  • VIP occurred in relatively high amounts also in skin from axilla whereas NPY in this region was below detection limit [24].
  • The output of the drains, which had been placed in the axilla during operation, was collected, and the presence of MUC1, Met-HGF/SF and beta-actin were assessed in the lymphatic fluid by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays [25].
  • The simultaneous presence of PR and marked PF was strongly correlated with limited metastatic involvement of the axilla (p less than 0.007) [26].
  • The distribution of Ki-67 reactivity in relation to tumor size and nodal status of the axilla revealed positive correlations (p = 0.02; p less than 0.05) [27].
  • As strong iNOS expression was correlated with short DFS, we concluded that further studies would be necessary to elucidate if iNOS expression might be a useful prognostic marker in breast carcinoma, especially in the axilla negative group [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Axilla


  1. Immunolymphoscintigraphy for the detection of lymph node metastases from breast cancer. Tjandra, J.J., Russell, I.S., Collins, J.P., Andrews, J.T., Lichtenstein, M., Binns, D., McKenzie, I.F. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Axilla skin biopsy: a reliable test for the diagnosis of Lafora's disease. Busard, H.L., Gabreëls-Festen, A.A., Renier, W.O., Gabreëls, F.J., Stadhouders, A.M. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of human cytokeratin 2, an epidermal cytoskeletal protein synthesized late during differentiation. Collin, C., Moll, R., Kubicka, S., Ouhayoun, J.P., Franke, W.W. Exp. Cell Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns of aerobic coryneforms and furazolidone-resistant Gram-positive cocci from the skin surface of the human axilla and fourth toe cleft. Eady, E.A., Coates, P., Ross, J.I., Ratyal, A.H., Cove, J.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Microbial pathways leading to steroidal malodour in the axilla. Austin, C., Ellis, J. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Høiby, N., Jarløv, J.O., Kemp, M., Tvede, M., Bangsborg, J.M., Kjerulf, A., Pers, C., Hansen, H. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Integration of conservative surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy for the treatment of early-stage, node-positive breast cancer: sequencing, timing, and outcome. Recht, A., Come, S.E., Gelman, R.S., Goldstein, M., Tishler, S., Gore, S.M., Abner, A.L., Vicini, F.A., Silver, B., Connolly, J.L. J. Clin. Oncol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. A specific bacterial aminoacylase cleaves odorant precursors secreted in the human axilla. Natsch, A., Gfeller, H., Gygax, P., Schmid, J., Acuna, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Prospective evaluation of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyclucose positron emission tomography in breast cancer for staging of the axilla related to surgery and immunocytochemistry. Utech, C.I., Young, C.S., Winter, P.F. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Unusual cutaneous toxicity following treatment with dactinomycin: a report of two cases. Kanwar, V.S., Gajjar, A., Ribeiro, R.C., Bowman, L., Parham, D.M., Jenkins, J.J. Med. Pediatr. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term tamoxifen therapy to control or to prevent breast cancer: laboratory concept to clinical trials. Jordan, V.C. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. The 10-year results of a prospective trial of post-operative radiotherapy delivered in 3 fractions per week versus 2 fractions per week in breast carcinoma. Bates, T.D. The British journal of radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the axilla in women with breast cancer: comparison with pathology of excised nodes. Murray, A.D., Staff, R.T., Redpath, T.W., Gilbert, F.J., Ah-See, A.K., Brookes, J.A., Miller, I.D., Payne, S. The British journal of radiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Breast conservation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with early stage breast cancer. Phillips, K.A., McKay, M.J. Australasian radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Capabilities of two- and three-dimensional FDG-PET for detecting small lesions and lymph nodes in the upper torso: a dynamic phantom study. Raylman, R.R., Kison, P.V., Wahl, R.L. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficient detection and long-term persistence of the carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Sanford, M.D., Widmer, A.F., Bale, M.J., Jones, R.N., Wenzel, R.P. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Extramammary Paget's disease--evidence for an apocrine origin. An immunoperoxidase study of gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, carcinoembryonic antigen, and keratin proteins. Mazoujian, G., Pinkus, G.S., Haagensen, D.E. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. The synergistic effect of sympathectomy and hyperbaric oxygen exposure on transcutaneous PO2 in healthy volunteers. Thomas, P.S., Hakim, T.S., Trang, L.Q., Hosain, S.I., Camporesi, E.M. Anesth. Analg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of atrial defibrillation using biphasic shocks and current nonthoracotomy endocardial lead configurations. Saksena, S., Prakash, A., Mangeon, L., Varanasi, S., Kolettis, T., Mathew, P., De Groot, P., Mehra, R., Krol, R.B. Am. J. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of aluminium chlorhydrate on sweat gland activity in cattle. Rees-Jones, A.M., Jenkinson, D.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  21. Excretion of beta-lactam antibiotics in sweat--a neglected mechanism for development of antibiotic resistance? Hoiby, N., Pers, C., Johansen, H.K., Hansen, H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. The metabolism of testosterone by dermal papilla cells cultured from human pubic and axillary hair follicles concurs with hair growth in 5 alpha-reductase deficiency. Hamada, K., Thornton, M.J., Laing, I., Messenger, A.G., Randall, V.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of antimicrobial soap containing chlorhexidine on the microbial flora of skin. Aly, R., Maibach, H.I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Occurrence and distribution of neuropeptides in the human skin. An immunocytochemical and immunochemical study on normal skin and blister fluid from inflamed skin. Wallengren, J., Ekman, R., Sundler, F. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Detection of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor receptor (c-Met) and MUC1 from the axillary fluid drainage in patients after breast cancer surgery. Greenberg, R., Barnea, Y., Schneebaum, S., Kashtan, H., Kaplan, O., Skornik, Y. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Relationship between progesterone receptor, axillary node status and productive fibrosis in ductal infiltrating carcinoma of the breast. Giani, C., Campani, D., De Negri, F., Capotorti, E., Savarese, M.R., Benigni, G., Incensati, R.M., Breccia, M., Miccoli, P., Evangelista, G. Applied pathology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Ki-67 immunoreactivity in breast carcinomas in relation to transferrin receptor expression, estrogen receptor status and morphological criteria. An immunohistochemical study. Wrba, F., Chott, A., Reiner, A., Reiner, G., Markis-Ritzinger, E., Holzner, J.H. Oncology (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Significance of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in benign and malignant breast epithelium: an immunohistochemical study of 151 cases. Bulut, A.S., Erden, E., Sak, S.D., Doruk, H., Kursun, N., Dincol, D. Virchows Arch. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Age as a prognostic factor for breast and regional nodal recurrence following breast conserving surgery and irradiation in stage I and II breast cancer. Halverson, K.J., Perez, C.A., Taylor, M.E., Myerson, R., Philpott, G., Simpson, J.R., Tucker, G., Rush, C. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Uniportal endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for treatment of palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis: analysis of 2000 cases. Lin, T.S., Kuo, S.J., Chou, M.C. Neurosurgery (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Axillary metastasis as first symptom of occult breast cancer: a case report. Frattaroli, F.M., Carrara, A., Conte, A.M., Pappalardo, G. Tumori. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Human fetal adrenal transplant: a possible role in relieving intractable pain in advanced rheumatoid arthritis. Bhattacharya, N., Chhetri, M.K., Mukherjee, K.L., Das, S.P., Mukherjee, A., Bhattacharya, M., Bhattacharya, S. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Lymph node siderosis in trypan blue treated rats. Dumont, A.E. Lymphology. (1988) [Pubmed]
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