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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Perineum


High impact information on Perineum

  • DESIGN: Monthly surveillance for MRSA colonization of nares, perineum, rectum, and wounds [6].
  • Eighteen presented with primary SCC of the anal canal, two with metastatic disease, and one with a recurrence in the perineum [7].
  • Twenty noncarriers, 26 intermittent carriers, and 16 persistent carriers had nasal, throat, and perineum samples taken 1 day before and 5 weeks after mupirocin treatment (twice daily for 5 days) and assessed for growth of S. aureus [8].
  • PURPOSE: Rat pups only void when the perigenital-bladder reflex is activated by the mother rat licking the perineum [9].
  • Some of these cells contain CGRP and SP, which indicate that referred pain in the perineum and pelvic floor may be caused by an axon reflex in the peripheral process of DRG neurons [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Perineum


Biological context of Perineum

  • In the present study, half of the dams were treated with intranasal zinc sulfate throughout the postpartum period, which led to a specific reduction in maternal stimulation of pup perineum by interfering with the reception of eliciting signals [14].

Anatomical context of Perineum

  • METHODS: One-hundred sixty patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II who were scheduled for elective surgery on a lower limb or perineum were sequentially assigned to one of four equal groups to receive intrathecal 0.5% tetracaine in 7.5% or 0.75% glucose, with or without 0.125% phenylephrine [15].
  • At the age of 60 to 90 days, 12 of 17 testes on the operated side were located in the superficial inguinal position, 2 were in the perineum, and another 3 had descended into the contralateral nonoperated scrotum [16].
  • A midline sagittal scan of the fetal pelvis, perineum and external genitalia was obtained and observed continuously during fetal micturition [17].
  • Three MRSA-negative sets of swabs from nose, throat, perineum, urine, and sputum taken at least one hour apart after this six-month period [18].
  • The inferior skin flap is suspended from Colles' fascia of the perineum with subdermal PDS sutures [19].

Associations of Perineum with chemical compounds

  • In addition, the data suggest that, although behavior may exert a positive effect on male arousal, in the absence of an estrogen stimulated perineum it is not sufficient to arouse males to masturbate [20].
  • Ninety-seven (52%) of the cancer patients habitually used talcum powder on the perineum, compared with 247 (46%) of the controls [21].
  • Screening swabs (swabs of the nose, throat, perineum, and infected sites) were inoculated onto the new ORSA medium and into an enrichment broth (Muller-Hinton broth supplemented with NaCl and oxacillin) [22].
  • The perineum was dissected, fixed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and monoclonal antibodies against neuronal specific enolase [23].
  • They were asked to rate their pain at the time of the catheter insertion, the lidocaine infiltration of the perineum and prostate and again at the completion of the seed insertion [24].

Gene context of Perineum

  • Our results are comparable with the results published in Boston. Because of the high percentage local recurrence in the perineum following APR, we changed our technique and dose [25].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Men with CPPS have altered heat sensation/pain sensitization in the perineum compared to controls [26].
  • After an adaptation period of 15 minutes, digital pressure was applied to the anterior perineum by one of the authors (WRS) [27].
  • The primary natural niche is said to be the human vestibulum nasi from where bacterial cells may spread to the environment or additional anatomical sites such as the perineum or the hands, where residence is usually transient [28].
  • Sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) were recorded from the palms (SSR-1), the soles (SSR-2) and the perineum (SSR-3) [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Perineum


  1. Foscarnet therapy for severe acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An uncontrolled trial. Erlich, K.S., Jacobson, M.A., Koehler, J.E., Follansbee, S.E., Drennan, D.P., Gooze, L., Safrin, S., Mills, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Relation between local cure and dose-time-volume factors in interstitial implants. Burgers, J.M., Awwad, H.K., van der Laarse, R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. An animal model for human melanoma. Green, A., Neale, R., Kelly, R., Smith, I., Ablett, E., Meyers, B., Parsons, P. Photochem. Photobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Kaposi's sarcoma of the colon in a young HIV-negative woman with Crohn's disease. Puy-Montbrun, T., Pigot, F., Vuong, P.N., Ganansia, R., Denis, J. Dig. Dis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Somatosensory determinants of lordosis in female rats: behavioral definition of the estrogen effect. Pfaff, D., Montgomery, M., Lewis, C. Journal of comparative and physiological psychology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: colonization and infection in a long-term care facility. Bradley, S.F., Terpenning, M.S., Ramsey, M.A., Zarins, L.T., Jorgensen, K.A., Sottile, W.S., Schaberg, D.R., Kauffman, C.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen as a marker for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Petrelli, N.J., Shaw, N., Bhargava, A., Daufeldt, J., Herrera, L., Stulc, J.P., Sischy, B., Mittelman, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of mupirocin treatment on nasal, pharyngeal, and perineal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy adults. Wertheim, H.F., Verveer, J., Boelens, H.A., van Belkum, A., Verbrugh, H.A., Vos, M.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Maternal separation uncouples reflex from spontaneous voiding in rat pups. Wu, H.Y., de Groat, W.C. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Possible mechanism of referred pain in the perineum and pelvis associated with the prostate in rats. Chen, Y., Song, B., Jin, X.Y., Xiong, E.Q., Zhang, J.H. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of antiseptic agents on skin flora of the perineum of men with spinal cord injury. Gilmore, D.S., Montgomerie, J.Z., Graham, I.E., Schick, D.G., Jimenez, E.M. Infection control : IC. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Glove selection as personal protective equipment and occupational dermatitis among Japanese midwives. Sasaki, M., Kanda, K. Journal of occupational health. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa with combination hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian and adrenal suppression. A case report. Camisa, C., Sexton, C., Friedman, C. The Journal of reproductive medicine. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Maternal stimulation affects the number of motor neurons in a sexually dimorphic nucleus of the lumbar spinal cord. Moore, C.L., Dou, H., Juraska, J.M. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. The addition of phenylephrine contributes to the development of transient neurologic symptoms after spinal anesthesia with 0.5% tetracaine. Sakura, S., Sumi, M., Sakaguchi, Y., Saito, Y., Kosaka, Y., Drasner, K. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of the excision of future scrotal skin on testicular descent in neonatal rats: a new experimental model of cryptorchidism. Shono, T., Suita, S. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Sonography of fetal micturition. Boopathy Vijayaraghavan, S. Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Determining risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage after discharge from hospital. Beaujean, D.J., Weersink, A.J., Blok, H.E., Frénay, H.M., Verhoef, J. J. Hosp. Infect. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Fascial anchoring technique in medial thigh lifts. Lockwood, T.E. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Experimental assessments of behavioral and anatomical components of female chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) sexual attractiveness. Bielert, C., Girolami, L. Psychoneuroendocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Personal and environmental characteristics related to epithelial ovarian cancer. II. Exposures to talcum powder, tobacco, alcohol, and coffee. Whittemore, A.S., Wu, M.L., Paffenbarger, R.S., Sarles, D.L., Kampert, J.B., Grosser, S., Jung, D.L., Ballon, S., Hendrickson, M. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Evaluation of a novel medium for screening specimens from hospitalized patients to detect methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Blanc, D.S., Wenger, A., Bille, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Urethral development in the fetal rabbit and induction of hypospadias: a model for human development. Kurzrock, E.A., Jegatheesan, P., Cunha, G.R., Baskin, L.S. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. A reappraisal of local anesthesia for prostate brachytherapy. Mueller, A., Wallner, K., Corriveau, J., Arthurs, S., Gwinn, M., Sutlief, S. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy in carcinoma of the rectum and recto-sigmoid. Wiggenraad, R., Ravasz, L.A., Probst-van Zuylen, F.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Pain sensitization in male chronic pelvic pain syndrome: why are symptoms so difficult to treat? Yang, C.C., Lee, J.C., Kromm, B.G., Ciol, M.A., Berger, R.E. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. The perineorectal reflex The perineorectal reflex in health and obstructed defecation. Gosselink, M.J., Schouten, W.R. Dis. Colon Rectum (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Attachment of Staphylococcus aureus to eukaryotic cells and experimental pitfalls in staphylococcal adherence assays: a critical appraisal. Van Belkum, A., Kools-Sijmons, M., Verbrugh, H. J. Microbiol. Methods (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Sudomotor skin responses following nerve and brain stimulation. Rossini, P.M., Opsomer, R.J., Boccasena, P. Electroencephalography and clinical neurophysiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Vulvar application of lidocaine for pain relief in spontaneous vaginal delivery. Collins, M.K., Porter, K.B., Brook, E., Johnson, L., Williams, M., Jevitt, C.M. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Analgesic and systemic effects of ketamine, xylazine, and lidocaine after subarachnoid administration in goats. DeRossi, R., Junqueira, A.L., Beretta, M.P. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Irradiated polyglactin 910: a new synthetic absorbable suture. Tandon, S.C., Kelly, J., Turtle, M., Irwin, S.T. Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Analgesic efficacy of paracetamol/codeine and paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene in pain after episiotomy and ruptures in connection with childbirth. Jacobson, J., Bertilson, S.O. J. Int. Med. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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