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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Chi-Square Distribution

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Disease relevance of Chi-Square Distribution

  • Expression of HER-2/neu or mutant p53 was similar in both tumor groups studied--mammary carcinoma with a low basal expression of P-glycoprotein compared with endometrial and cervical carcinomas with significantly (P = .0002; chi-square test) higher levels of expression [1].
  • Lymphomas, which develop in 40% of tTA/TAg female mice, were found in only 4% of tTA/TAg/ER-alpha mice (P = 0.014, chi-square test) [2].
  • G-CSF-treated patients had a decreased number of sepsis episodes per patient (0.92 +/- 1.5 vs. 2.18 +/- 2.8, P < 0.02, t test), and a lower percentage of sepsis-related deaths (8% vs. 22%, P < 0.04, chi-square test) [3].
  • Loss of expression of the DCC gene product detected by immunohistochemistry significantly correlated with the loss of mRNA expression in ovarian carcinomas (P = 0.01 by chi-square test) or in both endometrial and ovarian carcinomas combined (P = 0.001) [4].
  • The incidence of vertebral compression fracture was 14 fractures in 322 vertebral bodies examined (4.3%) in the C group and 6 fractures in 378 vertebral bodies examined (1.6%) in the BE group (chi-square test, p = 0.0290) [5].

High impact information on Chi-Square Distribution

  • There was a significant dose-dependent effect among the three study groups in favor of low-molecular-weight heparin (P = 0.005 by the chi-square test for trend) [6].
  • Associations between HER-2/neu and ER/PR expression were analyzed using Spearman's rho correlation and the chi-square test, and absolute levels were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test [7].
  • The chi-square test for association was used to analyze the relationship between STK15 expression and pathologic features [8].
  • In 97 patients surviving one year after trial entry, plasma creatinine exceeded the baseline by more than 25% at some time in the first year in 25 (53%) of 47 in the steroid withdrawal group compared with 9 (18%) of 50 in the control group (p < 0.001, chi-square test) [9].
  • After dithiothreitol, the rate of reactivity increased to 94% (CI, 84% to 99%; P less than 0.0001 by the McNemar paired chi-square test), suggesting that the elimination of rheumatoid factor leads to unmasking of anti-HCV in cryoprecipitate [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Chi-Square Distribution


Biological context of Chi-Square Distribution


Anatomical context of Chi-Square Distribution


Associations of Chi-Square Distribution with chemical compounds

  • Nineteen patients on VPA and 3 on FBM met escape criteria (p less than 0.001, chi-square test) [26].
  • Response and side effects with citalopram and placebo were compared by using chi-square tests and linear modeling [27].
  • Among the infants with adequate serum retinol concentrations (> 0.7 mumol/L) after supplementation, the vitamin A-supplemented infants had a significantly higher proportion of positive CMI tests than the placebo infants (chi-square test: 8.99, P = 0.008) [28].
  • Good and poor glucose control were clearly associated with improvement and worsening, respectively, of the borderline AER values (P = 0.032, chi-square test of trend) [29].
  • A two-sample t-test (average acenocoumarol dosage, age), and chi-square tests (sex, therapeutic range, type of NSAID) were used to test for differences [30].

Gene context of Chi-Square Distribution

  • Association with the PTPN22 SNP was analyzed by chi-square test as implemented in Stata software [31].
  • In 259 primary IDCs, reduced E-cad expression was associated with high histologic grade (chi square test for trend, P < .001), negative estrogen receptor status (ER; Fisher's exact test; P = .042), and marginally with axillary node involvement (Fisher's exact test, P = .063) [32].
  • RESULTS: The allele distributions at the DRB1 locus observed in PSReA patients, ARF patients, and controls were not significantly different from each other (chi-square test with small numbers, P = .65) [33].
  • Variable relationships were observed between advanced disease stage and immunostaining for individual gene products (ERBB-2 - p = 0.05, EGFR - p = 0.02, p53 - p = 0.12, Chi Square test) [34].
  • The frequency of the TF C2 variant did not differ by the diagnosis when the APOE epsilon4-positive subjects and APOE epsilon4-negative subjects were analyzed separately (P>0.1 by Chi square test) [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Chi-Square Distribution


  1. P-glycoprotein, HER-2/neu, and mutant p53 expression in human gynecologic tumors. Schneider, J., Rubio, M.P., Barbazán, M.J., Rodriguez-Escudero, F.J., Seizinger, B.R., Castresana, J.S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Introduction of estrogen receptor-alpha into the tTA/TAg conditional mouse model precipitates the development of estrogen-responsive mammary adenocarcinoma. Tilli, M.T., Frech, M.S., Steed, M.E., Hruska, K.S., Johnson, M.D., Flaws, J.A., Furth, P.A. Am. J. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor after liver transplantation. Foster, P.F., Mital, D., Sankary, H.N., McChesney, L.P., Marcon, J., Koukoulis, G., Kociss, K., Leurgans, S., Whiting, J.F., Williams, J.W. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Loss of expression and loss of heterozygosity in the DCC gene in neoplasms of the human female reproductive tract. Enomoto, T., Fujita, M., Cheng, C., Nakashima, R., Ozaki, M., Inoue, M., Nomura, T. Br. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Stronger back muscles reduce the incidence of vertebral fractures: a prospective 10 year follow-up of postmenopausal women. Sinaki, M., Itoi, E., Wahner, H.W., Wollan, P., Gelzcer, R., Mullan, B.P., Collins, D.A., Hodgson, S.F. Bone (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Low-molecular-weight heparin for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Kay, R., Wong, K.S., Yu, Y.L., Chan, Y.W., Tsoi, T.H., Ahuja, A.T., Chan, F.L., Fong, K.Y., Law, C.B., Wong, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Quantitative association between HER-2/neu and steroid hormone receptors in hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer. Konecny, G., Pauletti, G., Pegram, M., Untch, M., Dandekar, S., Aguilar, Z., Wilson, C., Rong, H.M., Bauerfeind, I., Felber, M., Wang, H.J., Beryt, M., Seshadri, R., Hepp, H., Slamon, D.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Amplification/overexpression of a mitotic kinase gene in human bladder cancer. Sen, S., Zhou, H., Zhang, R.D., Yoon, D.S., Vakar-Lopez, F., Ito, S., Jiang, F., Johnston, D., Grossman, H.B., Ruifrok, A.C., Katz, R.L., Brinkley, W., Czerniak, B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Randomised controlled trial of steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients receiving triple immunosuppression. Ratcliffe, P.J., Dudley, C.R., Higgins, R.M., Firth, J.D., Smith, B., Morris, P.J. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia. Misiani, R., Bellavita, P., Fenili, D., Borelli, G., Marchesi, D., Massazza, M., Vendramin, G., Comotti, B., Tanzi, E., Scudeller, G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Trends of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from a small animal referral hospital. Normand, E.H., Gibson, N.R., Taylor, D.J., Carmichael, S., Reid, S.W. Vet. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Lipid abnormalities in coronary heart disease: a population-based case-control study. Gupta, R., Kaul, V., Prakash, H., Sarna, M., Singhal, S., Gupta, V.P. Indian heart journal. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Therapeutic plasmapheresis for liver failure after hepatectomy. Usami, M., Ohyanagi, H., Nishimatsu, S., Kasahara, H., Shiroiwa, H., Ishimoto, S., Ueda, T., Saitoh, Y. ASAIO transactions / American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Granisetron and ondansetron for prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy. Dua, N., Bhatnagar, S., Mishra, S., Singhal, A.K. Anaesthesia and intensive care. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of a simple screening tool for dysphagia in patients with stroke using factor analysis of multiple dysphagia variables. Nishiwaki, K., Tsuji, T., Liu, M., Hase, K., Tanaka, N., Fujiwara, T. Journal of rehabilitation medicine : official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Association of a functional single-nucleotide polymorphism of PTPN22, encoding lymphoid protein phosphatase, with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Orozco, G., Sánchez, E., González-Gay, M.A., López-Nevot, M.A., Torres, B., Cáliz, R., Ortego-Centeno, N., Jiménez-Alonso, J., Pascual-Salcedo, D., Balsa, A., de Pablo, R., Nuñez-Roldan, A., González-Escribano, M.F., Martín, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. A functional haplotype of the PADI4 gene associated with increased rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in Koreans. Kang, C.P., Lee, H.S., Ju, H., Cho, H., Kang, C., Bae, S.C. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. K-ras mutations and RASSF1A promoter methylation in colorectal cancer. van Engeland, M., Roemen, G.M., Brink, M., Pachen, M.M., Weijenberg, M.P., de Bruïne, A.P., Arends, J.W., van den Brandt, P.A., de Goeij, A.F., Herman, J.G. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Vigabatrin, a gabaergic antiepileptic drug, causes concentric visual field defects. Kälviäinen, R., Nousiainen, I., Mäntyjärvi, M., Nikoskelainen, E., Partanen, J., Partanen, K., Riekkinen, P. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Protecting the myocardium: a role for the beta2 adrenergic receptor in the heart. Patterson, A.J., Zhu, W., Chow, A., Agrawal, R., Kosek, J., Xiao, R.P., Kobilka, B. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Supplementation with vitamins C and E suppresses leukocyte oxygen free radical production in patients with myocardial infarction. Herbaczyńska-Cedro, K., K+osiewicz-Wasek, B., Cedro, K., Wasek, W., Panczenko-Kresowska, B., Wartanowicz, M. Eur. Heart J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecules expressed in human pituitary tumors and related to extrasellar invasion. Trouillas, J., Daniel, L., Guigard, M.P., Tong, S., Gouvernet, J., Jouanneau, E., Jan, M., Perrin, G., Fischer, G., Tabarin, A., Rougon, G., Figarella-Branger, D. J. Neurosurg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Increment technique for extended Class V restorations: an experimental study. Müllejans, R., Lang, H., Schüler, N., Baldawi, M.O., Raab, W.H. Operative dentistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo assessment of the regulation of transforming growth factor alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor in the human endometrium by medroxyprogesterone acetate. Reis, F.M., Lhullier, C., Edelweiss, M.I., Spritzer, P.M. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Multiplanar reconstructed computed tomography images improves depiction and understanding of the anatomy of the frontal sinus and recess. Kew, J., Rees, G.L., Close, D., Sdralis, T., Sebben, R.A., Wormald, P.J. American journal of rhinology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Felbamate monotherapy: controlled trial in patients with partial onset seizures. Sachdeo, R., Kramer, L.D., Rosenberg, A., Sachdeo, S. Ann. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Efficacy and tolerability of citalopram in the treatment of late-life anxiety disorders: results from an 8-week randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lenze, E.J., Mulsant, B.H., Shear, M.K., Dew, M.A., Miller, M.D., Pollock, B.G., Houck, P., Tracey, B., Reynolds, C.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of early vitamin A supplementation on cell-mediated immunity in infants younger than 6 mo. Rahman, M.M., Mahalanabis, D., Alvarez, J.O., Wahed, M.A., Islam, M.A., Habte, D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Borderline increases in albumin excretion rate and the relation to glycemic control in subjects with type I diabetes. Chase, H.P., Marshall, G., Garg, S.K., Harris, S., Osberg, I. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Potential interaction between acenocoumarol and diclofenac, naproxen and ibuprofen and role of CYP2C9 genotype. van Dijk, K.N., Plat, A.W., van Dijk, A.A., Piersma-Wichers, M., de Vries-Bots, A.M., Slomp, J., de Jong-van den Berg, L.T., Brouwers, J.R. Thromb. Haemost. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Association between the PTPN22 gene and rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a UK population: further support that PTPN22 is an autoimmunity gene. Hinks, A., Barton, A., John, S., Bruce, I., Hawkins, C., Griffiths, C.E., Donn, R., Thomson, W., Silman, A., Worthington, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Reduced E-cadherin expression is associated with invasiveness and unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer. Siitonen, S.M., Kononen, J.T., Helin, H.J., Rantala, I.S., Holli, K.A., Isola, J.J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Lack of association between the HLA-DRB1 locus and post-streptococcal reactive arthritis and acute rheumatic fever in Italian children. Simonini, G., Porfirio, B., Cimaz, R., Calabri, G.B., Giani, T., Falcini, F. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Concurrent abnormal expression of ERBB-2, EGFR, and p53 genes and clinical disease progression of breast carcinoma. Visscher, D.W., Castellani, R., Wykes, S.M., Sarkar, F.H., Hussain, M.E. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Transferrin C2 variant does not confer a risk for Alzheimer's disease in Koreans. Kim, K.W., Jhoo, J.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, D.Y., Lee, K.U., Youn, J.Y., Woo, J.I. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Interleukin 2 gene therapy for prostate cancer: phase I clinical trial and basic biology. Belldegrun, A., Tso, C.L., Zisman, A., Naitoh, J., Said, J., Pantuck, A.J., Hinkel, A., deKernion, J., Figlin, R. Hum. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Inhibition of tumor implantation by intravesical gemcitabine in a murine model of superficial bladder cancer. Brocks, C.P., Büttner, H., Böhle, A. J. Urol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. A phase II study of moderate hypothermia in severe brain injury. Clifton, G.L., Allen, S., Barrodale, P., Plenger, P., Berry, J., Koch, S., Fletcher, J., Hayes, R.L., Choi, S.C. J. Neurotrauma (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. High cyclooxygenase-2 expression is related with distant metastasis in cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy. Kim, H.J., Wu, H.G., Park, I.A., Ha, S.W. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Effect of in-the-bag intraocular lens fixation on the prevention of posterior capsule opacification. Ram, J., Pandey, S.K., Apple, D.J., Werner, L., Brar, G.S., Singh, R., Chaudhary, K.P., Gupta, A. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (2001) [Pubmed]
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