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Gene Review

Clu  -  clusterin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: APOJ, CLI, Clusterin, DAG, Dimeric acid glycoprotein, ...
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Disease relevance of Clu


Psychiatry related information on Clu


High impact information on Clu


Chemical compound and disease context of Clu


Biological context of Clu


Anatomical context of Clu

  • Finally, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of clusterin in PC12 cells elongates neurite-formation triggered by NGF and induces spontaneous neurite outgrowth even in the absence of NGF [19].
  • Both clusterin and SCLIP are co-localized at the perinuclear region and growth cone of PC12 cells [19].
  • Primer extension, S1 nuclease protection, and extensive polymerase chain reaction analysis suggest that the TRPM-2 transcript from the prostate and the SGP-2 transcript from the testis are in fact identical and only contain the exon I sequence identified in the TRPM-2 genomic clone [16].
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We recently reported that expression of the gene encoding clusterin (Clu) is upregulated in the regenerating pancreas, particularly in tissues undergoing differentiation [17].
  • This led us to propose that clusterin participates in the cytodifferentiation of pancreatic tissue, particularly the endocrine islet cells [17].

Associations of Clu with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Clu

  • Taken together, these results suggest that the clusterin interacts with SCLIP and the interaction may act as an important modulator during neuronal differentiation [19].

Regulatory relationships of Clu


Other interactions of Clu

  • Furthermore, in 8-wk-old rats that were fed a high-sucrose diet, the DAG oil group accumulated less visceral fat and showed decreases of plasma adiponectin and suppressed increases of plasma insulin, leptin, and the size of islet of Langerhans compared with the TAG oil group [27].
  • Using the bioassay developed for the ovine protein, rat clusterin was purified to apparent homogeneity by HPLC from primary Sertoli cell-enriched culture media [28].
  • Using an affinity-purified rabbit antiserum raised against recombinant clusterin, we established an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the urinary excretion of clusterin after bilateral renal ischemia, in the (cy/ +) rat model of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease and in the FHH rat model of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis [3].
  • Testicular transferrin mRNA levels from irradiated rats decreased in comparison to levels in the normal rat, whereas SGP-2 mRNA levels were unchanged [29].
  • To localize NGF- and EGF-responsive elements we isolated the clusterin promoter and tested it in PC12 cell transfections [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Clu


  1. Expression of clusterin in Müller cells of the rat retina after pressure-induced ischemia. Gwon, J.S., Kim, I.B., Lee, M.Y., Oh, S.J., Chun, M.H. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Clusterin: a protective mediator for ischemic cardiomyocytes? Krijnen, P.A., Cillessen, S.A., Manoe, R., Muller, A., Visser, C.A., Meijer, C.J., Musters, R.J., Hack, C.E., Aarden, L.A., Niessen, H.W. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Urinary clusterin levels in the rat correlate with the severity of tubular damage and may help to differentiate between glomerular and tubular injuries. Hidaka, S., Kränzlin, B., Gretz, N., Witzgall, R. Cell Tissue Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Delayed, but prolonged increases in astrocytic clusterin (ApoJ) mRNA expression following acute cortical spreading depression in the rat: evidence for a role of clusterin in ischemic tolerance. Wiggins, A.K., Shen, P.J., Gundlach, A.L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Changes in brain gene expression shared by scrapie and Alzheimer disease. Duguid, J.R., Bohmont, C.W., Liu, N.G., Tourtellotte, W.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The effects of a 3-day increase of ambient temperature on body temperature and REM sleep in an animal model of depression. Rosenthal, M.S., Vogel, G.W. Sleep. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Augmentation of lithium's behavioral effect by inositol uptake inhibitors. Einat, H., Kofman, O., Itkin, O., Lewitan, R.J., Belmaker, R.H. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, vimentin, c-Fos, and clusterin in the postischemic kidney. Evidence for a heterogenous genetic response among nephron segments, and a large pool of mitotically active and dedifferentiated cells. Witzgall, R., Brown, D., Schwarz, C., Bonventre, J.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Human seminal clusterin (SP-40,40). Isolation and characterization. O'Bryan, M.K., Baker, H.W., Saunders, J.R., Kirszbaum, L., Walker, I.D., Hudson, P., Liu, D.Y., Glew, M.D., d'Apice, A.J., Murphy, B.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of the TRPM-2 gene in cells undergoing programmed death. Buttyan, R., Olsson, C.A., Pintar, J., Chang, C., Bandyk, M., Ng, P.Y., Sawczuk, I.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein 2 is associated with carcinogenesis induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea in rat prostate and seminal vesicle. Kadomatsu, K., Anzano, M.A., Slayter, M.V., Winokur, T.S., Smith, J.M., Sporn, M.B. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Estrogenic regulation of clusterin mRNA in normal and malignant endometrial tissue. Wünsche, W., Tenniswood, M.P., Schneider, M.R., Vollmer, G. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Clusterin upregulation following rubrospinal tract lesion in the adult rat. Liu, L., Svensson, M., Aldskogius, H. Exp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition decreases growth factor expression in the neonatal rat kidney. Yoo, K.H., Wolstenholme, J.T., Chevalier, R.L. Pediatr. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective expression of clusterin (SGP-2) and complement C1qB and C4 during responses to neurotoxins in vivo and in vitro. Rozovsky, I., Morgan, T.E., Willoughby, D.A., Dugichi-Djordjevich, M.M., Pasinetti, G.M., Johnson, S.A., Finch, C.E. Neuroscience (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Genomic organization and expression of the rat TRPM-2 (clusterin) gene, a gene implicated in apoptosis. Wong, P., Pineault, J., Lakins, J., Taillefer, D., Léger, J., Wang, C., Tenniswood, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Clusterin induces differentiation of pancreatic duct cells into insulin-secreting cells. Kim, B.M., Kim, S.Y., Lee, S., Shin, Y.J., Min, B.H., Bendayan, M., Park, I.S. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Intracellular clusterin causes juxtanuclear aggregate formation and mitochondrial alteration. Debure, L., Vayssiere, J.L., Rincheval, V., Loison, F., Le Drean, Y., Michel, D. J. Cell. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Clusterin interacts with SCLIP (SCG10-like protein) and promotes neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. Kang, S.W., Shin, Y.J., Shim, Y.J., Jeong, S.Y., Park, I.S., Min, B.H. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of clusterin/apoJ expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors in neural cells. Nuutinen, T., Suuronen, T., Kyrylenko, S., Huuskonen, J., Salminen, A. Neurochem. Int. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Hydrogen peroxide and ADP-ribose induce TRPM2-mediated calcium influx and cation currents in microglia. Kraft, R., Grimm, C., Grosse, K., Hoffmann, A., Sauerbruch, S., Kettenmann, H., Schultz, G., Harteneck, C. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Clusterin activates survival through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Ammar, H., Closset, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  23. Nerve growth factor and epidermal growth factor stimulate clusterin gene expression in PC12 cells. Gutacker, C., Klock, G., Diel, P., Koch-Brandt, C. Biochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparative study of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists in interstitial scarring. Klahr, S., Morrissey, J.J. Kidney Int. Suppl. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Genesis of renal cysts is associated with clusterin expression in experimental cystic disease. Rosenberg, M.E., Manivel, J.C., Carone, F.A., Kanwar, Y.S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Vinclozolin and p,p'-DDE alter androgen-dependent gene expression: in vivo confirmation of an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. Kelce, W.R., Lambright, C.R., Gray, L.E., Roberts, K.P. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of diacylglycerol on the development of impaired glucose tolerance in sucrose-fed rats. Meguro, S., Osaki, N., Matsuo, N., Tokimitsu, I. Lipids (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Rat clusterin isolated from primary Sertoli cell-enriched culture medium is sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2). Cheng, C.Y., Chen, C.L., Feng, Z.M., Marshall, A., Bardin, C.W. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Germ cell regulation of Sertoli cell transferrin mRNA levels. Stallard, B.J., Griswold, M.D. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Biosynthesis and molecular cloning of sulfated glycoprotein 2 secreted by rat Sertoli cells. Collard, M.W., Griswold, M.D. Biochemistry (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of the products of a gene expressed during androgen-programmed cell death and their potential use as a marker of urogenital injury. Bandyk, M.G., Sawczuk, I.S., Olsson, C.A., Katz, A.E., Buttyan, R. J. Urol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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