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Chemical Compound Review

Hexamide     hexanamide

Synonyms: Caproamide, HEXANAMIDE, Hexylamide, Capronamide, Hexanoamide, ...
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Disease relevance of Nylon

  • We have proposed that inappropriate induction of such a cell death program in the mature CD4+ T cell population could account for both early qualitative and late quantitative CD4+ T lymphocyte defects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals (Ameisen, J.C., and A. Capron. 1991. Immunol. Today. 4:102) [1].
  • 6-Aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase (EII), responsible for the degradation of nylon-6 industry by-products, and its analogous enzyme (EII') that has only approximately 0.5% of the specific activity toward the 6-aminohexanoate-linear dimer, are encoded on plasmid pOAD2 of Arthrobacter sp. (formerly Flavobacterium sp.) KI72 [2].
  • Through selective cultivation with 6-aminohexanoate linear dimer, a by-product of nylon-6 manufacture, as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO, which initially has no enzyme activity to degrade this xenobiotic compound, was successfully expanded in its metabolic ability [3].
  • L-689,502, N-[2(R)-hydroxy-1(S)-indanyl]-5(S)-(1,1-dimethylethoxy- carbonylamino)-4(S)-hydroxy-6-phenyl-2(R)-(4-[2-(4- morpholinyl)ethoxy]phenyl)methyl hexanamide, is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease [4].
  • METHODS: cDNAs of freshly isolated and restimulated CD4+ T cells from patients with allergic asthma (AA) or atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy subjects were analyzed on Nylon membrane-based DNA arrays [5].

Psychiatry related information on Nylon


High impact information on Nylon

  • In this article, Jean Claude Ameisen and André Capron suggest that inappropriate induction of a form of programmed T-cell death could account for both qualitative and quantitative helper T-cell defects of HIV-infected patients [8].
  • A comparison of the expression profiles of M15 and transfectant C2A was performed using Nylon-based arrays [9].
  • COX inhibition also greatly attenuated the vasoconstriction elicited by ET-1, whereas the CYP450 epoxygenase inhibitor N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-proparglyoxyphenyl) hexanamide enhanced the ET-1-mediated vascular response [10].
  • A 1030 bp cDNA containing the entire coding sequence of the rat B7-1 was cloned with a polymerase chain reaction strategy utilizing degenerate primers derived from published murine and human B7-1 sequences [11].
  • The nucleotide sequences of the genes for 6-aminohexanoate-cyclic-dimer hydrolases of Flavobacterium sp. strain K172 (F-nylA) and Pseudomonas sp. NK87 (P-nylA), enzymes essential for the degradation of a by-product of the nylon-6 industry, were obtained by the dideoxynucleotide chain-termination method [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Nylon


Biological context of Nylon

  • RESULTS: Nylon and Prolene were little affected by all sterilization and disinfection methods [14].
  • The Nylon-wool adherent and non-adherent populations of splenocytes obtained from both normal and immunized lizards were subjected to treatment with heterologous anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) and their capacity to migrate in-vitro out of capillary tubes and to mediate cell mediated immunity (CMI) as adjudged by migration inhibition method studied [15].
  • A major model for T cell depletion, proposed originally by Ameison and Capron in a report published in 1991, is that HIV sensitizes CD4+ T cells for activation-induced apoptosis [16].
  • In summary, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for inhaled Nylon RFP was 57f/cm3 (20mg/m3), the highest concentration tested [17].
  • This inhalation toxicity study in rats was conducted to assess the hazard potential for workers inhaling Nylon respirable fibers [17].

Anatomical context of Nylon

  • Glucose oxidase, immobilized onto Nylon membranes, was used as biological element [18].
  • Reversibility of leucocytes adhered onto the surface of polyamine-grafted nylon-6 was investigated to estimate its feasibility as a new column substrate for granulocyte separation from whole blood [19].
  • When the elasticities were compared on the basis of the EM, that of pericardium was 749.06, 626.95, and 1253.17 times greater than that of the Nylon, Prolene, and silk suture threads, respectively [20].
  • Linear actuators applied tension to the distal tendons of the four extrinsic thumb muscles, and to six Nylon cords reproducing the lines of action of (i) the four intrinsic thumb muscles and (ii) two alternative tendon transfers commonly used to restore thumb opposition following low median nerve palsy [21].
  • When placed in a simulated body fluid with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of the human blood plasma, nanosized bone-like apatite formed uniformly on the surfaces of these treated polymers: within 2 days for PET and Nylon 6, and 7 days for EVOH [22].

Associations of Nylon with other chemical compounds

  • Neutron reflectivity and external reflection FTIR studies of DL-aspartic acid crystallization beneath nylon 6 spread films [23].
  • The first six linear and cyclic oligomers of polyamide-6 can be quantitatively determined in the polymer using HPLC with the sandwich injection method and an aqueous acetonitrile gradient [24].
  • Effective atomic numbers for total and dominant partial interaction processes of photons (1-50 MeV), electrons (1-50 MeV), and protons (1-200 MeV) for the composite materials bone (cortical), muscle (striated), water, polystyrene, Perspex, and Nylon-6 are derived [25].
  • Two groups of potential migrants were found in Nylon "microwave and roasting bags' (MRBs): volatile compounds were released at cooking temperatures and non-volatile compounds were extracted with methanol and/or water [26].
  • An amperometric biosensor for the direct determination of L-glutamate was developed by chemical bonding of L-glutamate oxidase (GAO) on a carboxylic Nylon membrane with polyazetidine prepolymer (PAP), and using a hydrogen peroxide electrode as indicating sensor [27].

Gene context of Nylon

  • Animals were pretreated with vehicle, the epoxygenase inhibitor (N-methylsulfonyl-6-[2-propargyloxyphenyl] hexanamide) or an inhibitor of the soluble epoxide hydrolase [28].
  • An enzyme-amperometric method is proposed for the analysis of total phenols and L-dopa; the method is based on the enzyme tyrosinase, which is immobilized in a Nylon membrane and coupled to an oxygen gas-diffusion amperometric electrode [29].
  • Emphasis has been placed on the development of rotationally moulded Nylon 11 shank sections, using Philadelphia recommended load levels as the design criteria for structural integrity [30].
  • (1971), while the short inner band of CF fraction IV was similar to HF antigen 5 of Capron et al [31].
  • Two hundred and thirty three patients with major laparotomy wounds, either midline or transverse, were randomly allocated to mass closure using No 1 (BPC) polyamide (Nylon) or polydioxanone suture (PDS) [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nylon

  • 2. Nylon wool filtration [33].
  • Likewise, the sulphonimide derivative of PPOH, N-methylsulphonyl-6-(2-proparglyloxyphenyl) hexanamide (MS-PPOH, 50 microM), enhanced the afferent arteriolar response to increasing renal perfusion pressure [34].
  • The linear and cyclic structures of polyamide-6 were separated by liquid chromatography at critical conditions (LCCC) and identified with different mass spectrometric (MS) techniques and quantitated by LCCC with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) [35].
  • In this study, UVC-induced stress response factors were analyzed by cDNA microarray, using the Millennium(R) Nylon membrane chip system [36].
  • These oligomers, considered as model compounds for the study of nylon-6 polymers, gave good mass spectrometric results using both MALDI and ESI [37].


  1. Activation-induced death by apoptosis in CD4+ T cells from human immunodeficiency virus-infected asymptomatic individuals. Groux, H., Torpier, G., Monté, D., Mouton, Y., Capron, A., Ameisen, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase: molecular basis for the birth of a nylon oligomer-degrading enzyme. Negoro, S., Ohki, T., Shibata, N., Mizuno, N., Wakitani, Y., Tsurukame, J., Matsumoto, K., Kawamoto, I., Takeo, M., Higuchi, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Emergence of nylon oligomer degradation enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO through experimental evolution. Prijambada, I.D., Negoro, S., Yomo, T., Urabe, I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Dose-dependent toxicokinetics of L-689,502, a potent human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor, in rats and dogs. Lin, J.H., Chen, I.W., King, J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. T cell phenotype in allergic asthma and atopic dermatitis. Wohlfahrt, J.G., Kunzmann, S., Menz, G., Kneist, W., Akdis, C.A., Blaser, K., Schmidt-Weber, C.B. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of 4-hydroxy, 4-phenyl, caproamide on pentylenetetrazol-induced amnesia. Oscós-Alvarado, A., Martínez de Muñoz, D. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Thermal pyrolysis of fresh and waste fishing nets. Kim, S.S., Jeon, J.K., Park, Y.K., Kim, S. Waste management (New York, N.Y.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Cell dysfunction and depletion in AIDS: the programmed cell death hypothesis. Ameisen, J.C., Capron, A. Immunol. Today (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Wnt-4 regulation by the Wilms' tumour suppressor gene, WT1. Sim, E.U., Smith, A., Szilagi, E., Rae, F., Ioannou, P., Lindsay, M.H., Little, M.H. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytochrome P450 and cyclooxygenase metabolites contribute to the endothelin-1 afferent arteriolar vasoconstrictor and calcium responses. Imig, J.D., Pham, B.T., LeBlanc, E.A., Reddy, K.M., Falck, J.R., Inscho, E.W. Hypertension (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Cloning the rat homolog of the CD28/CTLA-4-ligand B7-1: structural and functional analysis. Judge, T.A., Liu, M., Christensen, P.J., Fak, J.J., Turka, L.A. Int. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. High homology between 6-aminohexanoate-cyclic-dimer hydrolases of Flavobacterium and Pseudomonas strains. Tsuchiya, K., Fukuyama, S., Kanzaki, N., Kanagawa, K., Negoro, S., Okada, H. J. Bacteriol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Bioremediation of epsilon-caprolactam from nylon-6 waste water by use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCM B-407. Kulkarni, R.S., Kanekar, P.P. Curr. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Material properties of ophthalmic sutures after sterilization and disinfection. Shuttleworth, G.N., Vaughn, L.F., Hoh, H.B. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Studies on T-cells of the lizard, Calotes versicolor: adherent and non-adherent populations of the spleen. Manickasundari, M., Selvaraj, P., Pitchappan, R.M. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Does HIV cause depletion of CD4+ T cells in vivo by the induction of apoptosis? Jaworowski, A., Crowe, S.M. Immunol. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Four-week inhalation toxicity study in rats with nylon respirable fibers: rapid lung clearance. Warheit, D.B., Webb, T.R., Reed, K.L., Hansen, J.F., Kennedy, G.L. Toxicology (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. A glucose biosensor operating under non-isothermal conditions: the dynamic response. Santucci, M., Portaccio, M., Rossi, S., Bencivenga, U., Gaeta, F.S., Mita, D.G. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Reversibility of granulocyte adhesion using polyamine-grafted nylon-6 as a new column substrate for granulocyte separation. Yui, N., Sanui, K., Ogata, N., Kataoka, K., Okano, T., Sakurai, Y. Biomaterials (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of elasticities of components of a cardiac bioprosthesis leaflet. Páez, J.M., San Martin, A.C., Sestafe, J.V., Jorge-Herrero, E., Navidad, R., Cordón, A., Candela, I., Castillo-Olivares, J.L. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. The fundamental thumb-tip force vectors produced by the muscles of the thumb. Pearlman, J.L., Roach, S.S., Valero-Cuevas, F.J. J. Orthop. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Formation of bone-like apatite on organic polymers treated with a silane-coupling agent and a titania solution. Balas, F., Kawashita, M., Nakamura, T., Kokubo, T. Biomaterials (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Neutron reflectivity and external reflection FTIR studies of DL-aspartic acid crystallization beneath nylon 6 spread films. Jamieson, M.J., Cooper, S.J., Miller, A.F., Holt, S.A. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Analysis of linear and cyclic oligomers in polyamide-6 without sample preparation by liquid chromatography using the sandwich injection method. III. Separation mechanism and gradient optimization. Mengerink, Y., Peters, R., van der Wal, S., Claessens, H.A., Cramers, C.A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Effective atomic numbers of composite materials for total and partial interaction processes for photons, electrons, and protons. Prasad, S.G., Parthasaradhi, K., Bloomer, W.D. Medical physics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Determination of potential migrants present in Nylon 'microwave and roasting bags' and migration into olive oil. Soto-Valdez, H., Gramshaw, J.W., Vandenburg, H.J. Food additives and contaminants. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Determination of L-glutamate and L-glutamine in pharmaceutical formulations by amperometric L-glutamate oxidase based enzyme sensors. Botrè, F., Botrè, C., Lorenti, G., Mazzei, F., Porcelli, F., Scibona, G. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenase gene function in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Pokreisz, P., Fleming, I., Kiss, L., Barbosa-Sicard, E., Fisslthaler, B., Falck, J.R., Hammock, B.D., Kim, I.H., Szelid, Z., Vermeersch, P., Gillijns, H., Pellens, M., Grimminger, F., van Zonneveld, A.J., Collen, D., Busse, R., Janssens, S. Hypertension (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Analysis of L-dopa in pharmaceutical preparations and of total phenols content in urine by means of an enzyme-amperometric sensor. Campanella, L., Beone, T., Sammartino, M.P., Tomassetti, M. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Development and testing of thermoplastic structural components for modular prostheses. Coombes, A.G., MacCoughlan, J. Prosthetics and orthotics international. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of major component proteins in cystic fluid of Taenia solium metacestodes. Kong, Y., Cho, S.Y., Kim, S.I., Kang, S.Y. Kisaengchunghak Chapchi (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Abdominal wound closure: a controlled trial of polyamide (nylon) and polydioxanone suture (PDS). Leaper, D.J., Allan, A., May, R.E., Corfield, A.P., Kennedy, R.H. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Improved method of enrichment for immature myeloid cells from normal human bone marrow. Burghouts, J., Plas, A.M., Salden, M., Wessels, J. Exp. Hematol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  34. Contribution of cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and hydroxylase pathways to afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responsiveness. Imig, J.D., Falck, J.R., Inscho, E.W. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Separation and quantification of the linear and cyclic structures of polyamide-6 at the critical point of adsorption. Mengerink, Y., Peters, R., deKoster, C.G., van der Wal, S., Claessens, H.A., Cramers, C.A. Journal of chromatography. A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Two UVC-induced stress response pathways in HeLa cells identified by cDNA microarray. Guo, Y.L., Chang, H.C., Tsai, J.H., Huang, J.C., Li, C., Young, K.C., Wu, L.W., Lai, M.D., Liu, H.S., Huang, W. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectral characterization of linear single nylon-6 oligomers. Shan, L., Murgasova, R., Hercules, D.M., Houalla, M. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2001) [Pubmed]
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