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Chemical Compound Review

AG-E-06089     chromium(+3) cation; pyridine-2-carboxylate

Synonyms: ACMC-209cx0, ANW-21010, LS-2230, CTK0H5803, KSC175Q0H, ...
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Disease relevance of alpha-Picolinic acid


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Gene context of alpha-Picolinic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of alpha-Picolinic acid


  1. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Wasser, W.G., Feldman, N.S., D'Agati, V.D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Nutritional supplement chromium picolinate causes sterility and lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. Hepburn, D.D., Xiao, J., Bindom, S., Vincent, J.B., O'Donnell, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Chromium picolinate supplementation attenuates body weight gain and increases insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Martin, J., Wang, Z.Q., Zhang, X.H., Wachtel, D., Volaufova, J., Matthews, D.E., Cefalu, W.T. Diabetes Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. A newly synthetic chromium complex--chromium(phenylalanine)3 improves insulin responsiveness and reduces whole body glucose tolerance. Yang, X., Palanichamy, K., Ontko, A.C., Rao, M.N., Fang, C.X., Ren, J., Sreejayan, N. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women. Grant, K.E., Chandler, R.M., Castle, A.L., Ivy, J.L. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Cytotoxicity and oxidative mechanisms of different forms of chromium. Bagchi, D., Stohs, S.J., Downs, B.W., Bagchi, M., Preuss, H.G. Toxicology (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Chromium(III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Stearns, D.M., Wise, J.P., Patierno, S.R., Wetterhahn, K.E. FASEB J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromium picolinate enhances skeletal muscle cellular insulin signaling in vivo in obese, insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Wang, Z.Q., Zhang, X.H., Russell, J.C., Hulver, M., Cefalu, W.T. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Oral chromium picolinate improves carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and enhances skeletal muscle Glut-4 translocation in obese, hyperinsulinemic (JCR-LA corpulent) rats. Cefalu, W.T., Wang, Z.Q., Zhang, X.H., Baldor, L.C., Russell, J.C. J. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. The binding of trivalent chromium to low-molecular-weight chromium-binding substance (LMWCr) and the transfer of chromium from transferrin and chromium picolinate to LMWCr. Sun, Y., Ramirez, J., Woski, S.A., Vincent, J.B. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Chromium picolinate modulates rat vascular smooth muscle cell intracellular calcium metabolism. Moore, J.W., Maher, M.A., Banz, W.J., Zemel, M.B. J. Nutr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of resistance training with or without chromium picolinate supplementation on glucose metabolism in older men and women. Joseph, L.J., Farrell, P.A., Davey, S.L., Evans, W.J., Campbell, W.W. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutagenicity of chromium picolinate and its components in Salmonella typhimurium and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Whittaker, P., San, R.H., Clarke, J.J., Seifried, H.E., Dunkel, V.C. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Oral chromium picolinate and control of glycemia in insulin-treated diabetic dogs. Schachter, S., Nelson, R.W., Kirk, C.A. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The effect of chromium picolinate and biotin supplementation on glycemic control in poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized trial. Singer, G.M., Geohas, J. Diabetes Technol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Herbs and nutrients in the treatment of depression, anxiety, insomnia, migraine, and obesity. Brown, R.P., Gerbarg, P.L. Journal of psychiatric practice. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Chromium picolinate effects on body composition and muscular performance in wrestlers. Walker, L.S., Bemben, M.G., Bemben, D.A., Knehans, A.W. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Chromium picolinate intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: an evidence-based review by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Trumbo, P.R., Ellwood, K.C. Nutr. Rev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Vincent, J.B. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Chromium picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions. Pattar, G.R., Tackett, L., Liu, P., Elmendorf, J.S. Mutat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Chromium picolinate increases membrane fluidity and rate of insulin internalization. Evans, G.W., Bowman, T.D. J. Inorg. Biochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Chromium picolinate does not produce chromosome damage in CHO cells. Gudi, R., Slesinski, R.S., Clarke, J.J., San, R.H. Mutat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Insulin sensitising action of chromium picolinate in various experimental models of diabetes mellitus. Shindea, U.A., Sharma, G., Xu, Y.J., Dhalla, N.S., Goyal, R.K. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS). (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro metabolism and permeation studies in rat jejunum: organic chromium compared to inorganic chromium. Gammelgaard, B., Jensen, K., Steffansen, B. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology : organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS). (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. PKC-mediated modulation of L-type calcium channels may contribute to fat-induced insulin resistance. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Dietary L-carnitine increases plasma leptin concentrations of gestating sows fed one meal per day. Woodworth, J.C., Minton, J.E., Tokach, M.D., Nelssen, J.L., Goodband, R.D., Dritz, S.S., Koo, S.I., Owen, K.Q. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparative induction of oxidative stress in cultured J774A.1 macrophage cells by chromium picolinate and chromium nicotinate. Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., Balmoori, J., Ye, X., Stohs, S.J. Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Supplementation with chromium picolinate recovers renal Cr concentration and improves carbohydrate metabolism and renal function in type 2 diabetic mice. Mita, Y., Ishihara, K., Fukuchi, Y., Fukuya, Y., Yasumoto, K. Biological trace element research. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Nutritional factors influencing the glucose/insulin system: chromium. Anderson, R.A. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Cerulli, J., Grabe, D.W., Gauthier, I., Malone, M., McGoldrick, M.D. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects. Press, R.I., Geller, J., Evans, G.W. West. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Chromium picolinate may favorably influence the vascular risk associated with smoking by combating cortisol-induced insulin resistance. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. High-dose biotin, an inducer of glucokinase expression, may synergize with chromium picolinate to enable a definitive nutritional therapy for type II diabetes. McCarty, M.F. Med. Hypotheses (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Chromium treatment has no effect in patients with poorly controlled, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes in an obese Western population: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Kleefstra, N., Houweling, S.T., Jansman, F.G., Groenier, K.H., Gans, R.O., Meyboom-de Jong, B., Bakker, S.J., Bilo, H.J. Diabetes Care (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Ultrastructural damage in chromium picolinate-treated cells: a TEM study. Transmission electron microscopy. Manygoats, K.R., Yazzie, M., Stearns, D.M. J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Chromium picolinate for reducing body weight: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Pittler, M.H., Stevinson, C., Ernst, E. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus. Fox, G.N., Sabovic, Z. The Journal of family practice. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus elderly patients. Rabinovitz, H., Friedensohn, A., Leibovitz, A., Gabay, G., Rocas, C., Habot, B. International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition. (2004) [Pubmed]
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