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Chemical Compound Review

STRONTIUM     strontium

Synonyms: estroncio, STRONTIUM, 99%, AC1NSDYO, AG-G-95702, AG-L-24249, ...
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Disease relevance of strontium

  • INTRODUCTION: Strontium ranelate simultaneously increases bone formation and decreases bone resorption, leading to prevention of bone loss and increase in bone mass and bone strength in normal and ovariectomized rats [1].
  • INTRODUCTION: Strontium ranelate is an orally active treatment able to decrease the risk of vertebral and hip fractures in osteoporotic postmenopausal women [2].
  • Rapid and preferential uptake of 47 calcium 87m Strontium by the multinodular calcareous masses was seen in a patient with tumoral calcinosis [3].
  • Micromolar concentrations of Mg alleviated the inhibition of root growth by Al but not by lanthanum, and neither strontium nor barium at the micromolar level alleviates Al toxicity [4].
  • Evoked release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) from pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) is dependent on extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]ex), but it can take place if calcium ions (Ca2+) are substituted by other divalent ions such as strontium (Sr2+) and barium (Ba2+) [5].

High impact information on strontium

  • Introduction: Strontium (Sr) has been reported to dissociate bone remodeling and have positive influences on bone formation [6].
  • Modulation of the kinetics of evoked quantal release at mouse neuromuscular junctions by calcium and strontium [7].
  • To address this gap, we studied Sr/Ca in tooth enamel from modern mammals in the greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, as well as fossil fauna from the Sterkfontein Valley. Grazing herbivores have the highest Sr/Ca, followed by browsers and carnivores in both modern and fossil fauna [8].
  • In postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with SR (0.5, 1 and 2 g/day) for 2 years, Sr was dose-dependently deposited into new bone without changes in the degree of mineralization of bone tissue [9].
  • Thus, at the end of long-term SR treatment and after a period of withdrawal, Sr was taken up in a dose-dependent manner into new bone without alteration of the degree of bone mineralization and with no major modification of bone mineral at the crystal level [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of strontium


Biological context of strontium

  • After warming they were either artificially activated with strontium (Sr2+), and the incidence of chromosome non-disjunction was assessed at first cleavage metaphase; or they were fertilized in vitro, and postimplantation survival was examined at Day 15 of gestation [12].
  • RESULTS: Sperm nuclei injected into oocytes within 1 h after Sr exposure (from early through mid-telophase) transformed normally into male pronuclei, and the number of chromosome aberrations did not significantly increase in the resultant zygotes [13].
  • When sperm nuclei were injected into eggs at intervals beyond 1 h after Sr exposure (from late telophase through the G1 pronuclear stage), the rate of male pronucleus formation was significantly reduced [13].
  • 90Sr levels were first established by two New York State certified laboratories, one of which used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Radioactive Strontium in Drinking Water Method 905 [14].
  • In order to corroborate the medico-legal diagnosis of vital submersion we reviewed the appropriate literature and tested Icard's initial hypothesis, already expressed in 1932, that Strontium might be a good indicator of sea-water drowning [15].

Anatomical context of strontium

  • Similar proportions of vitrified and freshly collected oocytes were activated with Sr2+ (75% and 82%, respectively) [12].
  • Sr was only measurable in granulocytes from patients [16].
  • Influx studies were conducted on PC12 cells using a radioactive tracer (45Ca2+ or 85Sr2+, < 1 microM) in the presence of either Sr2+ (0.5 mM) or Ca2+ (0.5 mM) [5].
  • The mass fraction of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe). zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and copper (Cu) in isolated granulocytes, erythrocytes and platelets was measured using the nuclear microprobe technique [16].
  • Subjectively healthy HLA-B27 positive 1st degree relatives (n = 14) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were investigated concerning the mass fraction of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and copper (Cu) in isolated blood cells using the nuclear microprobe technique [17].

Associations of strontium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of strontium

  • Patients with overt and subclinical CD did not have significantly different Sr absorption rates [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of strontium

  • This program was conducted in 12 countries, involved 75 centers, and was structured in 3 studies: FIRST (Fracture International Run-in for Strontium ranelate Trial), SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study) and TROPOS (TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis) [24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Strontium is accumulated in the body during renal failure and CAPD cannot restore normal levels [25].
  • METHODS: Mouse zygotes were produced by ICSI into eggs at various intervals after parthenogenetic exposure to strontium (Sr) for 30 min [13].
  • The purpose of the study was to determine the concentrations of bromine (Br), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn) in the coronal dentin of permanent teeth from Sweden and from New York City. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses [26].


  1. Long-term strontium ranelate administration in monkeys preserves characteristics of bone mineral crystals and degree of mineralization of bone. Farlay, D., Boivin, G., Panczer, G., Lalande, A., Meunier, P.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Vertebral fracture risk reduction with strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis is independent of baseline risk factors. Roux, C., Reginster, J.Y., Fechtenbaum, J., Kolta, S., Sawicki, A., Tulassay, Z., Luisetto, G., Padrino, J.M., Doyle, D., Prince, R., Fardellone, P., Sorensen, O.H., Meunier, P.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Tumoral calcinosis: accumulation of bone-seeking tracers in the calcium deposits. Leicht, E., Berberich, R., Lauffenburger, T., Haas, H.G. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Magnesium Enhances Aluminum-Induced Citrate Secretion in Rice Bean Roots (Vigna umbellata) by Restoring Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activity. Yang, J.L., You, J.F., Li, Y.Y., Wu, P., Zheng, S.J. Plant Cell Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Potency of depolarization-induced transmitter release is determined by divalent cation influx in PC 12 cells. Schwartz, L., Atlas, D. Neurosci. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of strontium on bone strength, density, volume, and microarchitecture in laying hens. Shahnazari, M., Sharkey, N.A., Fosmire, G.J., Leach, R.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Modulation of the kinetics of evoked quantal release at mouse neuromuscular junctions by calcium and strontium. Bukharaeva, E.A., Samigullin, D., Nikolsky, E.E., Magazanik, L.G. J. Neurochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Sr/Ca and early hominin diets revisited: new data from modern and fossil tooth enamel. Sponheimer, M., de Ruiter, D., Lee-Thorp, J., Späth, A. J. Hum. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. The mineralization of bone tissue: a forgotten dimension in osteoporosis research. Boivin, G., Meunier, P.J. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Accumulation of strontium and fluoride in approximal dental plaque and changes in plaque microflora after rinsing with chlorhexidine-fluoride-strontium solution. Spets-Happonen, S., Seppä, L., Korhonen, A., Alakuijala, P. Oral diseases. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Clastogenic activity of strontium chloride on bone marrow cells in vivo. Ghosh, S., Talukder, G., Sharma, A. Biological trace element research. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Cytogenetical analysis and developmental potential of vitrified mouse oocytes. Bos-Mikich, A., Wood, M.J., Candy, C.J., Whittingham, D.G. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. How long do parthenogenetically activated mouse oocytes maintain the ability to accept sperm nuclei as a genetic partner? Tateno, H., Kamiguchi, Y. J. Assist. Reprod. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of four 90Sr groundwater analytical methods. Scarpitta, S., Odin-McCabe, J., Gaschott, R., Meier, A., Klug, E. Health physics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum strontium estimation as a medico-legal diagnostic indicator of drowning. Piette, M., Timperman, J., Parisis, N. Medicine, science, and the law. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Redistribution of minerals and trace elements in chronic inflammation--a study on isolated blood cells from patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Hällgren, R., Feltelius, N., Lindh, U. J. Rheumatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Redistribution of cellular mineral and trace element stores in HLA-B27 positive relatives of patients with ankylosing spondylitis--a marker of hidden inflammatory disease. Feltelius, N., Hällgren, R., Lindh, U. J. Rheumatol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of Calcium, Strontium, and Magnesium Ions on the Formation of Phytosteroids in Callus Cultures of Agave amaniensis. Indrayanto, G., Rahayu, L., Rahman, A., Noeraeni, P.E. Planta Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Control of kidney 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 metabolism. Strontium and the involvement of parathyroid hormone. Omdahl, J.L. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Trace element transfer from the mother to the newborn--investigations on triplets of colostrum, maternal and umbilical cord sera. Krachler, M., Rossipal, E., Micetic-Turk, D. European journal of clinical nutrition. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Supercritical fluid route for synthesizing crystalline Barium Strontium Titanate nanoparticles. Reverón, H., Elissalde, C., Aymonier, C., Bidault, O., Maglione, M., Cansell, F. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Validation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the determination of cerium, strontium, and titanium in ceramic materials used in radiological dispersal devices (RDDs). Packer, A.P., Larivière, D., Li, C., Chen, M., Fawcett, A., Nielsen, K., Mattson, K., Chatt, A., Scriver, C., Erhardt, L.S. Anal. Chim. Acta (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypocalciuria in overt and subclinical celiac disease. Ciacci, C., Cirillo, M., Mellone, M., Basile, F., Mazzacca, G., De Santo, N.G. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Design and methodology of the phase 3 trials for the clinical development of strontium ranelate in the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Meunier, P.J., Reginster, J.Y. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Calcium and strontium metabolic studies in patients on CAPD. Apostolidis, N., Paradellis, T., Karydas, A., Manouras, A., Katirtzoglou, N., Mayopoulou-Symvoulidou, D. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of trace elements in human coronal dentin. Möller, B., Carlsson, L.E. Swedish dental journal. (1984) [Pubmed]
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