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Gene Review

Vcan  -  versican

Mus musculus

Synonyms: 5430420N07Rik, 9430051N09, Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 2, Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2, Cspg2, ...
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Disease relevance of Vcan

  • Here we show that versican G3-containing fragments are present at high levels in human astrocytoma [1].
  • Differentiation of EL4 lymphoma cells by tumoral environment is associated with inappropriate expression of the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan PG-M and the tumor-associated antigen HTgp-175 [2].
  • We show that oligodendrocyte precursor cells do not hypertrophy or increase NG2 levels after these lesions [3].
  • V3 versican isoform expression has a dual role in human melanoma tumor growth and metastasis [4].

High impact information on Vcan

  • Here, we show that release of glutamate from climbing fiber (CF) axons produces AMPA receptor currents with rapid kinetics in these NG2-immunoreactive glial cells (NG2+ cells) in cerebellar slices [5].
  • Paired Purkinje cell-NG2+ cell recordings show that one CF can innervate both cell types [5].
  • NG2+ cells may receive up to 70 discrete inputs from one CF and, unlike mature Purkinje cells, are often innervated by multiple CFs [5].
  • We demonstrate that early postnatal NG2-expressing (NG2+) progenitor cells located in the SVZ self-renew in vitro and display phenotypic features of transit-amplifier type C-like multipotent cells [6].
  • We show that grafted early postnatal NG2+ cells generate hippocampal GABAergic interneurons that propagate action potentials and receive functional glutamatergic synaptic inputs [6].

Biological context of Vcan


Anatomical context of Vcan

  • The findings of this study and our previous studies of the hdf insertional mutant mouse have shown that normal expression of the Cspg2 gene is required for the successful development of the endocardial cushion swellings and the embryonic heart segments that give rise to the right ventricle and conus/truncus in the outlet of the looped heart [7].
  • Pax3 may serve to negatively regulate versican expression during normal development, thereby guiding neural crest cells into their pathways of migration [8].
  • Here we showed several lines of evidence for essential roles of versican/PG-M in chondrogenic condensation using a new chondrocytic cell line, N1511 [9].
  • Although its transcription level rapidly diminished during growth, versican remained in the articular cartilage [10].
  • Immunostaining showed that versican was mainly localized in the interterritorial zone of the articular surface at 2 weeks in mice, whereas aggrecan was in the pericellular zone of prehypertrophic and hypertrophic cells of the growth plate [10].

Associations of Vcan with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Vcan


Co-localisations of Vcan

  • Punctate immunoreactivity for fibronectin and laminin was found to be colocalized with NG2 on the surface of NG2 cells [16].

Regulatory relationships of Vcan


Other interactions of Vcan


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vcan


  1. Versican/PG-M G3 domain promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis. Zheng, P.S., Wen, J., Ang, L.C., Sheng, W., Viloria-Petit, A., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., Kerbel, R.S., Yang, B.B. FASEB J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Differentiation of EL4 lymphoma cells by tumoral environment is associated with inappropriate expression of the large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan PG-M and the tumor-associated antigen HTgp-175. Rottiers, P., Verfaillie, T., Contreras, R., Revets, H., Desmedt, M., Dooms, H., Fiers, W., Grooten, J. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. The injury response of oligodendrocyte precursor cells is induced by platelets, macrophages and inflammation-associated cytokines. Rhodes, K.E., Raivich, G., Fawcett, J.W. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. V3 versican isoform expression has a dual role in human melanoma tumor growth and metastasis. Miquel-Serra, L., Serra, M., Hernández, D., Domenzain, C., Docampo, M.J., Rabanal, R.M., de Torres, I., Wight, T.N., Fabra, A., Bassols, A. Lab. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Climbing fiber innervation of NG2-expressing glia in the mammalian cerebellum. Lin, S.C., Huck, J.H., Roberts, J.D., Macklin, W.B., Somogyi, P., Bergles, D.E. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. NG2-expressing cells in the subventricular zone are type C-like cells and contribute to interneuron generation in the postnatal hippocampus. Aguirre, A.A., Chittajallu, R., Belachew, S., Gallo, V. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The Cspg2 gene, disrupted in the hdf mutant, is required for right cardiac chamber and endocardial cushion formation. Mjaatvedt, C.H., Yamamura, H., Capehart, A.A., Turner, D., Markwald, R.R. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Over-expression of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan versican is associated with defective neural crest migration in the Pax3 mutant mouse (splotch). Henderson, D.J., Ybot-Gonzalez, P., Copp, A.J. Mech. Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Versican/PG-M regulates chondrogenesis as an extracellular matrix molecule crucial for mesenchymal condensation. Kamiya, N., Watanabe, H., Habuchi, H., Takagi, H., Shinomura, T., Shimizu, K., Kimata, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification and characterization of versican/PG-M aggregates in cartilage. Matsumoto, K., Kamiya, N., Suwan, K., Atsumi, F., Shimizu, K., Shinomura, T., Yamada, Y., Kimata, K., Watanabe, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Differential expression of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the migratory pathway of the primordial germ cells of the mouse. Soto-Suazo, M., San Martin, S., Ferro, E.S., Zorn, T.M. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. A heparin-binding growth factor, midkine, binds to a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, PG-M/versican. Zou, K., Muramatsu, H., Ikematsu, S., Sakuma, S., Salama, R.H., Shinomura, T., Kimata, K., Muramatsu, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Increased NG2(+) glial cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte generation in the hypomyelinating mutant shiverer. Bu, J., Banki, A., Wu, Q., Nishiyama, A. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Hormone-regulated expression and localization of versican in the rodent ovary. Russell, D.L., Ochsner, S.A., Hsieh, M., Mulders, S., Richards, J.S. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Versican/PG-M Assembles Hyaluronan into Extracellular Matrix and Inhibits CD44-mediated Signaling toward Premature Senescence in Embryonic Fibroblasts. Suwan, K., Choocheep, K., Hatano, S., Kongtawelert, P., Kimata, K., Watanabe, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  16. NG2 glial cells provide a favorable substrate for growing axons. Yang, Z., Suzuki, R., Daniels, S.B., Brunquell, C.B., Sala, C.J., Nishiyama, A. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Sonic hedgehog regulates the position of the trigeminal ganglia. Fedtsova, N., Perris, R., Turner, E.E. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Versican expression is associated with chamber specification, septation, and valvulogenesis in the developing mouse heart. Henderson, D.J., Copp, A.J. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. The G3 domain of versican inhibits mesenchymal chondrogenesis via the epidermal growth factor-like motifs. Zhang, Y., Cao, L., Kiani, C.G., Yang, B.L., Yang, B.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Postnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons. Belachew, S., Chittajallu, R., Aguirre, A.A., Yuan, X., Kirby, M., Anderson, S., Gallo, V. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The growth factor midkine is modulated by both glucocorticoid and retinoid in fetal lung development. Kaplan, F., Comber, J., Sladek, R., Hudson, T.J., Muglia, L.J., Macrae, T., Gagnon, S., Asada, M., Brewer, J.A., Sweezey, N.B. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Functional and molecular alterations of the glomerular barrier in long-term diabetes in mice. Jeansson, M., Granqvist, A.B., Nyström, J.S., Haraldsson, B. Diabetologia (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of versican, aggrecan and link protein, and histochemistry of hyaluronan in the developing mouse limb bud cartilage. Shibata, S., Fukada, K., Imai, H., Abe, T., Yamashita, Y. J. Anat. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. NG2 proteoglycan expression in the peripheral nervous system: upregulation following injury and comparison with CNS lesions. Rezajooi, K., Pavlides, M., Winterbottom, J., Stallcup, W.B., Hamlyn, P.J., Lieberman, A.R., Anderson, P.N. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of blood biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis by transcript profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the rat collagen-induced arthritis model. Shou, J., Bull, C.M., Li, L., Qian, H.R., Wei, T., Luo, S., Perkins, D., Solenberg, P.J., Tan, S.L., Chen, X.Y., Roehm, N.W., Wolos, J.A., Onyia, J.E. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
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