The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Ghrh  -  growth hormone releasing hormone

Mus musculus

Synonyms: GHRH, GRF, Ghrf, Growth hormone-releasing factor, Growth hormone-releasing hormone, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ghrh


Psychiatry related information on Ghrh


High impact information on Ghrh


Chemical compound and disease context of Ghrh


Biological context of Ghrh

  • Using ligand competition assays with (125)I-labeled GH-RH antagonist JV-1-42, specific high-affinity binding sites for GH-RH were found on tumor membranes [14].
  • This sex difference in sst2A distribution on GHRH neurons may play an important role in the sexually differentiated pattern of GH secretion [15].
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates the production and release of growth hormone in the pituitary and induces cell proliferation in a variety of peripheral tissues and tumors [16].
  • The role of the somatotropic axis in sleep regulation was studied by using the lit/lit mouse with nonfunctional growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors (GHRH-Rs) and control heterozygous C57BL/6J mice, which have a normal phenotype [17].
  • Furthermore, there were no significant differences in cAMP generation in response to GHRH between genotypes [18].

Anatomical context of Ghrh

  • The pulsatile pattern of GH secretion exhibits sexual dimorphism that is likely to depend on somatostatin (SRIH) effects on somatoliberin (GHRH) neurons in the hypothalamus [15].
  • We also showed localization of the GHRH immunoreactive peptides in Golgi and secretory granules in neuroendocrine cells by an immunofluorescence assay [19].
  • On the contrary, testis were positive for SV1 and not for GHRH expression [16].
  • These tissues were also positive for GHRH expression, however, tissues such as the endometrium were positive only for GHRH and not for SV1 expression [16].
  • Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a neuropeptide that stimulates secretion of GH from the pituitary gland [20].

Associations of Ghrh with chemical compounds

  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist MZ-5-156 inhibits growth of DU-145 human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma in nude mice and suppresses the levels and mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor II in tumors [1].
  • A loss of dopamine signaling via hypothalamic D2Rs at a critical age causes the reduced release of GHRH from hypophyseotropic neurons leading to inadequate clonal expansion of the somatotrope population [18].
  • These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the sleep response to influenza infection is mediated, in part, by an up-regulation of hypothalamic sleep-related transcripts and they also show that a primary deficit in GHRH signaling is associated with enhanced corticosterone secretion and attenuated hypothalamic cytokine response to infection [4].
  • Our results suggest that the sex difference of ARC GHRH neurons and PeN SS neurons appears by stimulation with testosterone during the development life [21].
  • Characterization and localization of mouse hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor and effect of gold thioglucose-induced hypothalamic lesions [22].

Regulatory relationships of Ghrh


Other interactions of Ghrh

  • In several experimental cancers, treatment with antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) produces a reduction in IGF-I and -II, concomitant to inhibition of tumor growth [1].
  • 4) The Q10R mutant was significantly more susceptible to furin cleavage at the N-terminal site than the wild-type pro-GHRH [19].
  • 3) PC2 was much weaker in cleaving the C-terminal site relative to PC1/3 to generate mature GHRH [19].
  • These extrapituitary effects of GHRH are in many cases mediated by a splice variant of GHRH receptor designated SV1 that differs from the pituitary GHRH receptor in a small portion of its amino-terminal region [16].
  • The similarity of the pituitary defect in the D2R KO mouse to that of GHRH-deficient models suggests a probable mechanism [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ghrh


  1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist MZ-5-156 inhibits growth of DU-145 human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma in nude mice and suppresses the levels and mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor II in tumors. Lamharzi, N., Schally, A.V., Koppán, M., Groot, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Synergistic inhibition of growth of lung carcinomas by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone in combination with docetaxel. Hohla, F., Schally, A.V., Szepeshazi, K., Varga, J.L., Buchholz, S., K??ster, F., Heinrich, E., Halmos, G., Rick, F.G., Kannadka, C., Datz, C., Kanashiro, C.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin analog RC-160 inhibit the growth of the OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line xenografted into nude mice. Chatzistamou, I., Schally, A.V., Varga, J.L., Groot, K., Armatis, P., Busto, R., Halmos, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Influenza virus-induced glucocorticoid and hypothalamic and lung cytokine mRNA responses in dwarf lit/lit mice. Alt, J.A., Bohnet, S., Taishi, P., Duricka, D., Obal, F., Traynor, T., Majde, J.A., Krueger, J.M. Brain Behav. Immun. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. GHRH and sleep. Obal, F., Krueger, J.M. Sleep medicine reviews. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural specificity of peptides influencing neuronal survival during development. Brenneman, D.E., Foster, G.A. Peptides (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular basis of the little mouse phenotype and implications for cell type-specific growth. Lin, S.C., Lin, C.R., Gukovsky, I., Lusis, A.J., Sawchenko, P.E., Rosenfeld, M.G. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Pit-1-dependent expression of the receptor for growth hormone releasing factor mediates pituitary cell growth. Lin, C., Lin, S.C., Chang, C.P., Rosenfeld, M.G. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Somatotroph hypoplasia and dwarfism in transgenic mice expressing a non-phosphorylatable CREB mutant. Struthers, R.S., Vale, W.W., Arias, C., Sawchenko, P.E., Montminy, M.R. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of proliferation in human MNNG/HOS osteosarcoma and SK-ES-1 Ewing sarcoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone: effects on insulin-like growth factor II. Braczkowski, R., Schally, A.V., Plonowski, A., Varga, J.L., Groot, K., Krupa, M., Armatis, P. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of plasmid-mediated growth hormone-releasing hormone supplementation on LL-2 adenocarcinoma in mice. Khan, A.S., Anscombe, I.W., Cummings, K.K., Pope, M.A., Smith, L.C., Draghia-Akli, R. Mol. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of growth and metastases of MDA-MB-435 human estrogen-independent breast cancers by an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Chatzistamou, I., Schally, A.V., Varga, J.L., Groot, K., Busto, R., Armatis, P., Halmos, G. Anticancer Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Rasp21 sequences opposite the nucleotide binding pocket are required for GRF-mediated nucleotide release. Leonardsen, L., DeClue, J.E., Lybaek, H., Lowy, D.R., Willumsen, B.M. Oncogene (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit the proliferation of experimental non-small cell lung carcinoma. Szereday, Z., Schally, A.V., Varga, J.L., Kanashiro, C.A., Hebert, F., Armatis, P., Groot, K., Szepeshazi, K., Halmos, G., Busto, R. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Sexually dimorphic distribution of sst2A somatostatin receptors on growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons in mice. Bouyer, K., Loudes, C., Robinson, I.C., Epelbaum, J., Faivre-Bauman, A. Endocrinology (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and splice variant of GHRH receptors in normal mouse tissues. Christodoulou, C., Schally, A.V., Chatzistamou, I., Kondi-Pafiti, A., Lamnissou, K., Kouloheri, S., Kalofoutis, A., Kiaris, H. Regul. Pept. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Sleep in mice with nonfunctional growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. Obal, F., Alt, J., Taishi, P., Gardi, J., Krueger, J.M. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. GH in the dwarf dopaminergic D2 receptor knockout mouse: somatotrope population, GH release, and responsiveness to GH-releasing factors and somatostatin. Garc??a-Tornad??, I., Rubinstein, M., Gaylinn, B.D., Hill, D., Arany, E., Low, M.J., D??az-Torga, G., Becu-Villalobos, D. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Furin and prohormone convertase 1/3 are major convertases in the processing of mouse pro-growth hormone-releasing hormone. Dey, A., Norrbom, C., Zhu, X., Stein, J., Zhang, C., Ueda, K., Steiner, D.F. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Cutting edge: Requirement for growth hormone-releasing hormone in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ikushima, H., Kanaoka, M., Kojima, S. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Sex differentiation of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the mouse hypothalamus: an immunohistochemical and morphological study. Nurhidayat, n.u.l.l., Tsukamoto, Y., Sigit, K., Sasaki, F. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization and localization of mouse hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor and effect of gold thioglucose-induced hypothalamic lesions. Miki, N., Ono, M., Asakawa-Yasumoto, K., Aoki, T., Murata, Y., Ishituka, Y., Demura, H., Sasaki, F. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression analysis of hypothalamic and pituitary components of the growth hormone axis in fasted and streptozotocin-treated neuropeptide Y (NPY)-intact (NPY+/+) and NPY-knockout (NPY-/-) mice. Park, S., Peng, X.D., Frohman, L.A., Kineman, R.D. Neuroendocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Anterior pituitary hypoplasia and dwarfism in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Bossé, R., Fumagalli, F., Jaber, M., Giros, B., Gainetdinov, R.R., Wetsel, W.C., Missale, C., Caron, M.G. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. An essential role for the hematopoietic transcription factor Ikaros in hypothalamic-pituitary-mediated somatic growth. Ezzat, S., Mader, R., Fischer, S., Yu, S., Ackerley, C., Asa, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is involved in the depolarization-induced activation of growth hormone-releasing hormone gene transcription in vitro. Asai, M., Iwasaki, Y., Yoshida, M., Mutsuga-Nakayama, N., Arima, H., Ito, M., Takano, K., Oiso, Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Growth hormone-releasing hormone: an autocrine growth factor for small cell lung carcinoma. Kiaris, H., Schally, A.V., Varga, J.L., Groot, K., Armatis, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons projecting to the median eminence in normal and growth hormone-deficient Ames dwarf mice. Romero, M.I., Phelps, C.J. Neuroendocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Decrease in telomerase activity in U-87MG human glioblastomas after treatment with an antagonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone. Kiaris, H., Schally, A.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities