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Gene Review

LYZ  -  lysozyme

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C, LZM, Lysozyme C
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Disease relevance of LYZ

  • Here we report on a novel form of systemic ALys amyloidosis, caused by compound heterozygosity in exon 2 (p.T70N) and exon 4 (p.W112R) of the lysozyme gene (LYZ), with both mutations being present on the same allele [1].
  • LZM was identified by the capacity of cell lysates or medium to lyse Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and by the presence of a 14.5 Kd protein band which co-migrated with human LZM in SDS-PAGE and which reacted positively in Western blots with antiserum to human LZM [2].
  • In Crohn's disease intense LZM staining was seen in epitheloid cell granulomas [3].
  • In both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease LZM was present in inflammatory cells of crypt abscesses [3].
  • RESULTS--Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from all the patients with sarcoidosis increased LZM secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared with unstimulated mononuclear cells [4].

High impact information on LYZ

  • Genes for CD34 surface antigen, lysozyme (LZM) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were examined by RNA and DNA analyses [5].
  • Wild-type human lysozyme (hLZM) is quantitatively secreted into the media when expressed in mouse fibroblast cells, but some misfolded hLZMs are retained and rapidly degraded in a pre-Golgi compartment (Omura, F., Otsu, M., Yoshimori, T., Tashiro, Y., and Kikuchi, M. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 210, 591-599) [6].
  • Experiments have been carried out to characterize the binding of lysozyme (LZM) to bacteriol lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [7].
  • Thioglycolate-elicited M phi had 75% less intracellular LZM than untreated resident M phi [2].
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of resident mouse peritoneal macrophages (M phi) was found to suppress intracellular as well as secreted lysozyme (LZM) [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of LYZ

  • To develop a gene therapy strategy for treating bovine mastitis, a new mammary-specific vector containing human lysozyme (hLYZ) cDNA and kanamycin resistance gene was constructed for intramammary expression and clinical studies [8].

Biological context of LYZ


Anatomical context of LYZ

  • In pathological conditions, such as inflammation and neoplasia, most LZM-positive cells at the site of disease are either granulocytes or members of the mono-nuclear phagocytic system [12].
  • After provocation with 25 mg of methacholine or 1 mg of histamine, nasal washings were analyzed for total proteins: the plasma protein albumin, IgG, and nonsecretory IgA (nsIgA), and the glandular proteins secretory IgA (sIgA), lactoferrin (LFN), and lysozyme (LZM) [13].
  • The bactericidal and bacteriolytic effects of lysolecithin (LL) and egg-white lysozyme (LYZ) on Staph. aureus and group A streptococci and the solubilization of phospholipids from the bacterial membranes by these agents was studied [14].
  • The release of lipids by LYZ (in the presence of LL) from group A streptococci is related to its enzymatic activity, on a still unknown substrate, but not to its cationic nature as this muramidase cannot be replaced by a variety of cation substances (histone, polylysin, leukocyte cationic proteins, polymyxin B, and spermidine) [14].
  • Lysozyme (LZM) was identified in ulcerative colitis in granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages of the intestinal lamina propria [3].

Associations of LYZ with chemical compounds

  • Antagonization of LZM repression following conditional expression of AML1/ETO was achieved by TSA [11].
  • The antiinflammatory mechanisms of TFLP are probably associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin formation, influence on the antioxidant systems and the suppression of LZM release [15].
  • The selective interaction between polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) consecutively adsorbed from poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAC) and a binary mixture containing concanavalin A (COA) and lysozyme (LYZ) based on electrostatic interaction is reported [16].
  • The solubilization of the bulk of membrane lipids from staphylococci can also be achieved by Triton X-100 and by sodium lauryl sulfate and from group A streptococci by Triton X-100 plus LYZ [14].
  • A variety of other detergents (e.g., Cetavlon, sodium taurocholate, cetyl pyrdinium chloride) have no lipid-releasing properties even in the presence of LYZ [14].

Other interactions of LYZ

  • Its anti-inflammatory mechanisms are probably associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin formation, the influence on the antioxidant systems, and the suppression of LZM release [17].
  • From CD, DLS and AFM the following trend for protein binding at PEC particles under repulsive conditions was obtained: HSA/PEC-1.50 > MYO/PEC-1.50 > LYZ/PEC-0.66 [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LYZ


  1. ALys amyloidosis caused by compound heterozygosity in exon 2 (Thr70Asn) and exon 4 (Trp112Arg) of the lysozyme gene. Röcken, C., Becker, K., Fändrich, M., Schroeckh, V., Stix, B., Rath, T., Kähne, T., Dierkes, J., Roessner, A., Albert, F.W. Hum. Mutat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Down-regulation of macrophage lysozyme by lipopolysaccharide and interferon. Warfel, A.H., Zucker-Franklin, D. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunohistochemical identification of lysozyme in intestinal lesions in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Klockars, M., Reitamo, S., Reitamo, J.J., Möller, C. Gut (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with sarcoidosis: visualisation of single cell activation products. Pantelidis, P., Southcott, A.M., Cambrey, A.D., Laurent, G.J., du Bois, R.M. Thorax (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Developmental regulation of myeloid gene expression and demethylation during ex vivo culture of peripheral blood progenitor cells. Lübbert, M., Brugger, W., Mertelsmann, R., Kanz, L. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Protein disulfide isomerase associates with misfolded human lysozyme in vivo. Otsu, M., Omura, F., Yoshimori, T., Kikuchi, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Lipopolysaccharide interaction with lysozyme. Binding of lipopolysaccharide to lysozyme and inhibition of lysozyme enzymatic activity. Ohno, N., Morrison, D.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Intramammary expression and therapeutic effect of a human lysozyme-expressing vector for treating bovine mastitis. Sun, H.C., Xue, F.M., Qian, K., Fang, H.X., Qiu, H.L., Zhang, X.Y., Yin, Z.H. Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Cytosine methylation changes during normal hematopoiesis and in acute myeloid leukemia. Lübbert, M., Mertelsmann, R., Herrmann, F. Leukemia (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Relationship between antibody-dependent tumour cell lysis and primary granule exocytosis by human neutrophils. Dallegri, F., Frumento, G., Ballestrero, A., Goretti, R., Patrone, F. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation independently relieve AML1/ETO-mediated lysozyme repression. Claus, R., Fliegauf, M., Stock, M., Duque, J.A., Kolanczyk, M., L??bbert, M. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Human lysozyme (origin and distribution in health and disease). Reitamo, S., Klockars, M., Adinolfi, M., Osserman, E.F. La Ricerca in clinica e in laboratorio. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Abnormal nasal glandular secretion in recurrent sinusitis. Jeney, E.V., Raphael, G.D., Meredith, S.D., Kaliner, M.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. XIII. Role played by leukocyte extracts, lysolecithin, phospholipase a2, lysozyme, cationic proteins, and detergents in the solubilization of lipids from Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci: relation to bactericidal and bacteriolytic reactions in inflammatory sites. Lahav, M., Ne'eman, N., Sela, M.N., Ginsburg, I. Inflammation (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Evaluation of antiinflammatory activity of the total flavonoids of Laggera pterodonta on acute and chronic inflammation models. Wu, Y., Zhou, C., Li, X., Song, L., Wu, X., Lin, W., Chen, H., Bai, H., Zhao, J., Zhang, R., Sun, H., Zhao, Y. Phytotherapy research : PTR. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. pH dependence and protein selectivity of poly(ethyleneimine)/poly(acrylic acid) multilayers studied by in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Müller, M., Kessler, B., Houbenov, N., Bohatá, K., Pientka, Z., Brynda, E. Biomacromolecules (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of total phenolics from Laggera alata on acute and chronic inflammation models. Wu, Y., Zhou, C., Song, L., Li, X., Shi, S., Mo, J., Chen, H., Bai, H., Wu, X., Zhao, J., Zhang, R., Hao, X., Sun, H., Zhao, Y. Journal of ethnopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Monomodal Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles of PDADMAC/Poly(styrenesulfonate): Preparation and Protein Interaction. Ouyang, W., M??ller, M. Macromolecular bioscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of ethanol on human monocyte/macrophage lysozyme storage and release. Implications for the pathobiology of alcoholic liver disease. McCarthy, S.P., Lewis, C.E., McGee, J.O. J. Hepatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Differential effects of LPS, IFN-gamma and TNF alpha on the secretion of lysozyme by individual human mononuclear phagocytes: relationship to cell maturity. Lewis, C.E., McCarthy, S.P., Lorenzen, J., McGee, J.O. Immunology (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Cerebrospinal fluid lysozyme and beta 2-microglobulin in neurosarcoidosis. Oksanen, V., Grönhagen-Riska, C., Tikanoja, S., Somer, H., Fyhrquist, F. J. Neurol. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Gentamicin and sisomicin - induced renal tubular damage. Nicot, G., Merle, L., Valette, J.P., Charmes, J.P., Lachâtre, G. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1982) [Pubmed]
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