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Gene Review

Lyz2  -  lysozyme 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase C, Lysozyme C-1, Lysz, Lyz, Lyz1
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Disease relevance of Lyz

  • ADC were consistently more effective than LDC in presenting soluble (hen egg lysozyme) and particulate (heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes) antigens to antigen-sensitized T cells [1].
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia of the Wistar/Furth rat: establishment of a continuous tissue culture line producing lysozyme in vitro and in vivo [2].
  • In contrast, morphometric analysis of anionic sites stained with lysozyme and protamine sulfate reveals interspacings of 642 A and 585 A, respectively; in addition, these tracers produce major glomerular ultrastructural alterations and induce transient proteinuria [3].
  • The output of lysozyme into the venous and lymphatic drainage of a B.C.G. experimental granuloma has been studied [4].
  • Lysozyme secretion by submucosal glands protects the airway from bacterial infection [5].

Psychiatry related information on Lyz


High impact information on Lyz

  • Regulated expression was tested after microinjection of the lysozyme deletion mutants into primary cultures of chicken oviduct cells using fluorescent antibodies against T antigen [7].
  • Using the rat liver glucocorticoid receptor for binding studies, two separate binding sites have been identified: a strong binding site that is destroyed by deletion of lysozyme sequences between positions -74 and -39 and a weaker binding site contained between positions -208 and -161 upstream of the lysozyme cap site [7].
  • Deletion of lysozyme gene sequences upstream of position - 164 was accompanied by loss of both progesterone- and glucocorticoid-induced expression [7].
  • We have constructed a series of deletion mutants in the lysozyme promoter region fused to the SV40 T-antigen coding region [7].
  • Lysozyme, an enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of a beta-1----4 glycosidic linkage in polysaccharides, has been shown to be structurally related to alpha-LA and it has been proposed that they have arisen from a common ancestral gene [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Lyz


Biological context of Lyz


Anatomical context of Lyz

  • Intragastric lysozyme chloride (50-200 mg/kg) injected three times daily produced a dose-dependent attenuation of various gastric parameters in the acid-irrigated stomachs of antral ulcer rats [17].
  • Hepatic PTPase activity was measured using two artificial substrates phosphorylated on tyrosine: reduced, carboxyamidomethylated, and maleylated lysozyme (P-Tyr-RCML) and myelin basic protein (P-Tyr-MBP), as well as an autophosphorylated 48-kD insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain (P-Tyr-IRKD) [18].
  • Anti-Mo1 antibody did not inhibit PMA-stimulated neutrophil release of granule constituents or toxic O2 metabolites as evidenced by lysozyme and lactoferrin release or the reduction of ferricytochrome c in the lung perfusate [19].
  • Serum, urine, and ascitic fluid from rats with transplanted leukemia also contained elevated levels of lysozyme [2].
  • Moreover, lysozyme activity, which is a typical biochemical marker of macrophages, was induced in M1 cells by prostaglandin E alone, as well as by inducers of differentiation [20].

Associations of Lyz with chemical compounds

  • The protective effects of lysozyme chloride and antioxidants on this ulcer model were also evaluated [17].
  • Role of acid back-diffusion, glutathione, oxyradical, and histamine in antral hemorrhagic ulcer in rats: the protective effect of lysozyme chloride and antioxidants [17].
  • Arachidonic acid stimulated activity 4-14-fold, with half-maximal stimulation at 50-100 microM, when assayed in the presence of a variety of phosphosubstrates including casein, reduced carboxamidomethylated and maleylated lysozyme, myelin basic protein, and histone [21].
  • Hen egg lysozyme immobilized onto polystyrene beads and injected intratracheally yielded comparable results to those observed with HKL [22].
  • Through a simple sequence of Tris/EDTA/lysozyme treatment, osmotic lysis, and alkaline pH washes, the processed beta subunit fragment can be prepared in greater than 95% purity and at a yield of greater than 20 mg/liter of culture [23].

Physical interactions of Lyz


Regulatory relationships of Lyz


Other interactions of Lyz


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lyz

  • To determine the source of FN mRNA, we conducted a series of in situ hybridization studies with probes for FN and lysozyme, a macrophage-specific marker [31].
  • When radioactive lysozyme was injected into dextran-treated rats, there was less filtration of the protein in the kidneys than there was in the controls, but the rate of degradation of the labeled protein in slices prepared from the renal cortex and incubated in vitro was the same in the two groups [32].
  • To determine whether this impairment is due to a deficiency of extracellular bactericidal factors, the antipneumococcal activity of free fatty acids (FFA) in lung surfactant and the levels of lysozyme and transferrin in lavage fluids were quantified [33].
  • Electron microscope autoradiography revealed that radioactive lysozyme reabsorbed by the tubule cells had a similar location in both control- and dextran-treated rats [32].
  • SDS-PAGE and Western blotting of lamellar bodies (LB) using a polyclonal anti-human lysozyme (anti-HLZ) demonstrated a single band at 15 kD that was significantly enriched over rat lung homogenates, isolated lysosomes, and type II cell lysates [34].


  1. Intraepithelial airway dendritic cells: a distinct subset of pulmonary dendritic cells obtained by microdissection. Gong, J.L., McCarthy, K.M., Telford, J., Tamatani, T., Miyasaka, M., Schneeberger, E.E. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Acute myelogenous leukemia of the Wistar/Furth rat: establishment of a continuous tissue culture line producing lysozyme in vitro and in vivo. Greenberger, J.S., Rosenthal, D.S., Aaronson, S.A., Moloney, W.C. Blood (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Glomerular anionic site distribution in nonproteinuric rats. A computer-assisted morphometric analysis. Pilia, P.A., Swain, R.P., Williams, A.V., Loadholt, C.B., Ainsworth, S.K. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Lysozyme production by a granuloma in vivo: output in blood and lymph in relation to ultrastructure and immunochemistry. Carr, I., Carr, J., Trew, J.A., Lobo, A., Chattopadhyay, P.K. J. Pathol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Lysozyme secretion by submucosal glands protects the airway from bacterial infection. Dajani, R., Zhang, Y., Taft, P.J., Travis, S.M., Starner, T.D., Olsen, A., Zabner, J., Welsh, M.J., Engelhardt, J.F. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Digestibility and peptide patterns of modified lysozyme after hydrolyzing by protease. Umetsu, H., Van Chuyen, N. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Sequences in the promoter region of the chicken lysozyme gene required for steroid regulation and receptor binding. Renkawitz, R., Schütz, G., von der Ahe, D., Beato, M. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Similarity of the nucleotide sequences of rat alpha-lactalbumin and chicken lysozyme genes. Qasba, P.K., Safaya, S.K. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Lysozyme enhances the inhibitory effects of the peroxidase system on glucose metabolism of Streptococcus mutans. Lenander-Lumikari, M., Månsson-Rahemtulla, B., Rahemtulla, F. J. Dent. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Low molecular weight proteinuria exacerbates experimental ischemic renal injury. Zager, R.A., Teubner, E.J., Adler, S. Lab. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Gastric oxidative stress and hemorrhagic ulcer in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats. Hung, C.R., Wang, P.S. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Targeting of doxorubicin to the urinary bladder of the rat shows increased cytotoxicity in the bladder urine combined with an absence of renal toxicity. Haas, M., Moolenaar, F., Elsinga, A., Van der Wouden, E.A., de Jong, P.E., Meijer, D.K., de Zeeuw, D. Journal of drug targeting. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Primary structure of rat lysozyme. White, T.J., Mross, G.A., Osserman, E.F., Wilson, A.C. Biochemistry (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Evolution of rodent lysozymes: isolation and sequence of the rat lysozyme genes. Yeh, T.C., Wilson, A.C., Irwin, D.M. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Electrical charge on protein regulates its absorption from the rat small intestine. Nishikawa, M., Hasegawa, S., Yamashita, F., Takakura, Y., Hashida, M. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Development and characterization of a rat histiocyte-macrophage tumor line. Khar, A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Role of acid back-diffusion, glutathione, oxyradical, and histamine in antral hemorrhagic ulcer in rats: the protective effect of lysozyme chloride and antioxidants. Hung, C.R., Wang, P.S. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential regulation of multiple hepatic protein tyrosine phosphatases in alloxan diabetic rats. Boylan, J.M., Brautigan, D.L., Madden, J., Raven, T., Ellis, L., Gruppuso, P.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Prevention of pulmonary injury in isolated perfused rat lungs by activated human neutrophils preincubated with anti-Mo1 monoclonal antibody. Ismail, G., Morganroth, M.L., Todd, R.F., Boxer, L.A. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of differentiation of cultured mouse myeloid leukemia cells by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and counteraction of the inhibition by prostaglandin E1. Honma, Y., Kasukabe, T., Hozumi, M. Cancer Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Purification of a fatty acid-stimulated protein-serine/threonine phosphatase from bovine brain and its identification as a homolog of protein phosphatase 5. Skinner, J., Sinclair, C., Romeo, C., Armstrong, D., Charbonneau, H., Rossie, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Sequestration of inhaled particulate antigens by lung phagocytes. A mechanism for the effective inhibition of pulmonary cell-mediated immunity. MacLean, J.A., Xia, W., Pinto, C.E., Zhao, L., Liu, H.W., Kradin, R.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Mitochondrial ATP synthase. Overexpression in Escherichia coli of a rat liver beta subunit peptide and its interaction with adenine nucleotides. Garboczi, D.N., Hullihen, J.H., Pedersen, P.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of the hydrophobic region of heat shock protein 90. Yamamoto, M., Takahashi, Y., Inano, K., Horigome, T., Sugano, H. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Segment-selective absorption of lysozyme in the intestine. Takano, M., Koyama, Y., Nishikawa, H., Murakami, T., Yumoto, R. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Tellurium causes dose-dependent coordinate down-regulation of myelin gene expression. Toews, A.D., Roe, E.B., Goodrum, J.F., Bouldin, T.W., Weaver, J., Goines, N.D., Morell, P. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Protection of the Peyer's patch-associated crypt and villus epithelium against methotrexate-induced damage is based on its distinct regulation of proliferation. Renes, I.B., Verburg, M., Bulsing, N.P., Ferdinandusse, S., Büller, H.A., Dekker, J., Einerhand, A.W. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Novel application of ProteinChip technology exploring acute rejection markers of rat small bowel transplantation. Yamayoshi, Y., Watanabe, T., Tanabe, M., Hoshino, K., Matsumoto, K., Morikawa, Y., Shimadzu, M., Kitajima, M., Tanigawara, Y. Transplantation (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Sequential changes of extracellular matrix and proliferation of Ito cells with enhanced expression of desmin and actin in focal hepatic injury. Ogawa, K., Suzuki, J., Mukai, H., Mori, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Interaction of ribonuclease A with estrogen receptor from rat mammary tumor MTW9. Feldman, M., Burton, L.E., Hollander, V.P., Blackburn, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Anti-TNF-alpha treatment down-regulates the expression of fibronectin and decreases cellular infiltration of cardiac allografts in rats. Coito, A.J., Binder, J., Brown, L.F., de Sousa, M., Van de Water, L., Kupiec-Weglinski, J.W. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Effects of dextran on lysosomal ultrastructure and protein digestion in renal proximal tubule. Christensen, E.I., Maunsbach, A.B. Kidney Int. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. Impaired antipneumococcal activity of bronchoalveolar lining material of neonatal rats. Coonrod, J.D., Jarrells, M.C. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Synthesis of type II cell lamellar body lysozyme-15 kD protein (lbl-15) by perfused rat lung. Beers, M.F., Kim, C.Y., Dodia, C., Fisher, A.B. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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