The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

S100a1  -  S100 calcium binding protein A1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI266795, Protein S100-A1, S-100 protein alpha chain, S-100 protein subunit alpha, S100, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of S100a1

  • Expression of antisense RNA to S100A4 gene encoding an S100-related calcium-binding protein suppresses metastatic potential of high-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells [1].
  • Accordingly, various diseases such as cardiomyopathies, neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders, and cancer are associated with altered S100 protein levels [2].
  • Since binding of effector molecules to S100 proteins has been shown to involve the C-terminus and linker regions, these calcium-induced changes have implications for the role of Mts1 in metastasis [3].
  • Immunological assays for the detection of neuroendocrine-associated peptides, hormones, and enzymes revealed that, like melanoma, the SU-CCS-1 cell line was actively producing alpha-melanotropin, S-100 antigen, and nerve growth factor [4].
  • To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which the potent anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FUra), inhibits cell proliferation, the effect of its metabolite, 5-fluorouridine triphosphate, on transcription of rat rRNA gene and processing of pre-rRNA was investigated in S-100 extract from the mouse lymphosarcoma cells [5].

Psychiatry related information on S100a1


High impact information on S100a1

  • At least one of the compensatory mechanisms preventing a more severe skin phenotype in newborn Lor(-/-) mice is an increase in the expression of other CE components, such as SPRRP2D and SPRRP2H, members of the family of "small proline rich proteins", and repetin, a member of the "fused gene" subgroup of the S100 gene family [8].
  • In addition, in a cell-free system, the S-100 fraction of anti-IgM-treated WEHI-231 cells induces a caspase activation pattern different from that activated by cytochrome c and dATP [9].
  • Partial amino acid sequence analysis of the purified 10-kD protein, two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analysis and a binding experiment revealed that the 10-kD protein was identical to a calcium-binding protein derived from mRNA named pEL98 or 18A2 that is homologous to S100 protein [10].
  • At the cut ends of the nerve stumps a cap developed (more at the proximal than at the distal stump) that contained S-100-negative and fibronectin-positive fibroblast-like cells [11].
  • An in vitro processing system of mouse rRNA was achieved using an RNA polymerase I-specific transcription system, (S100) and recombinant plasmids consisting of mouse rRNA gene (rDNA) segments containing the transcription initiation and 5'-terminal region of 18S (or 41S) rRNA [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of S100a1


Biological context of S100a1

  • We have found that the mouse parathyroid exhibits the glial progenitor markers, p75(NTR) and S100 protein, during fetal development [15].
  • We have generated mice with a targeted deletion of the S100A1 gene coding for the major cardiac isoform of the large multigenic S100 family of EF hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins [16].
  • An update of the S100 nomenclature is included, because some of the recently identified S100 genes and pseudogenes had to be renamed [2].
  • The mts1 gene codes for a 101 amino acid protein which belongs to the subfamily of S100 Ca(2+)-binding proteins and is overexpressed in metastatic cancers as compared to their nonmetastatic counterparts [17].
  • Several of the patients undergoing open heart surgery presented measurable values in this IRMA S-100 assay, indicating cerebral effects of open heart surgery [18].

Anatomical context of S100a1


Associations of S100a1 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast, the number of double-labeled S100/GFAP-immnoreactive cells increased from 1 day up to 7 days after MPTP treatment [21].
  • S100 proteins comprise a family of Ca(2+) binding proteins of at least 21 members [22].
  • Two calcium-binding sites of the Mts1 protein, a member of S-100 protein family, were distinguished with the Fluo-3 fluorescent technique [23].
  • Chemotactic protein, 10 kD (CP-10), is an S100 protein with potent chemotactic activity for myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo and is expressed in neutrophils and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages [24].
  • The 76-amino acid sequence, obtained by automated N-terminal microsequence analysis of native CP-10, and fragments derived from trypsin digestion and cyanogen bromide cleavage indicated no sequence identity with any known cytokine or chemotactic factor but revealed up to 55% sequence homology with S100, Ca2(+)-binding proteins [25].

Physical interactions of S100a1

  • Calcyclin-like protein binds Zn2+ and forms dimers like other members of the S-100 protein family [26].

Regulatory relationships of S100a1


Other interactions of S100a1

  • In our double-labeled immunostaining, the number of S100-positive/GFAP-negative cells decreased from 1 day up to 7 days after MPTP treatment [21].
  • Calcyclin is a member of the S100 family of calcium binding proteins [27].
  • As a member of the S100 protein family, Mts1 is predicted to contain four alpha-helices and two calcium-binding loops, the second of which forms a canonical EF hand, while the first is a pseudo-EF hand, using two extra residues and principally backbone carbonyls rather than side chain oxygens to coordinate calcium [3].
  • These results suggest that a predominant form of S100 protein in human myocardial cells is not S100a (alpha beta) or S100b (beta beta), but S100a0 (alpha alpha) [28].
  • Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration chromatography analysis of the cytosolic Bax indicated that this protein is monomeric and displays an apparent molecular mass of 25 kDa [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of S100a1

  • The co-localization of p75(NTR) and S100 in the developing parathyroid cells has been confirmed by confocal microscopy [15].
  • Systems, including knock-out animal models, should be now used with the aim of defining the correspondence between the in vitro regulatory role(s) attributed to individual members of this protein family and the in vivo function(s) of each S100 protein [30].
  • The pattern of S100 mRNA expression did not change during postnatal development and cell culture of smooth muscle [31].
  • We have raised mouse hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies against bovine brain-specific proteins 14-3-2 and S-100, and we have characterized the antibodies by immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescence methods in sections and in tissue cultures of rat brain [32].
  • A monoclonal antibody to the calcium binding protein S-100 (G12.B8) reacted strongly with bovine S-100 in an ELISA and with the major protein bands in electrophoretically separated S-100 [32].


  1. Expression of antisense RNA to S100A4 gene encoding an S100-related calcium-binding protein suppresses metastatic potential of high-metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Takenaga, K., Nakamura, Y., Sakiyama, S. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. S100 proteins in mouse and man: from evolution to function and pathology (including an update of the nomenclature). Marenholz, I., Heizmann, C.W., Fritz, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Calcium coordination studies of the metastatic Mts1 protein. Dutta, K., Cox, C.J., Huang, H., Basavappa, R., Pascal, S.M. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Use of a newly established human cell line (SU-CCS-1) to demonstrate the relationship of clear cell sarcoma to malignant melanoma. Epstein, A.L., Martin, A.O., Kempson, R. Cancer Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Specific inhibition of pre-ribosomal RNA processing in extracts from the lymphosarcoma cells treated with 5-fluorouracil. Ghoshal, K., Jacob, S.T. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of social behaviors and oxytocinergic neurons in the S-100 beta overexpressing mouse model of Down Syndrome. Borella, A., Sumangali, R., Ko, J., Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Chronic elevation of S100 beta protein does not alter APP mRNA expression or promote beta-amyloid deposition in the brains of aging transgenic mice. Yao, J., Kitt, C., Reeves, R.H. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Lessons from loricrin-deficient mice: compensatory mechanisms maintaining skin barrier function in the absence of a major cornified envelope protein. Koch, P.J., de Viragh, P.A., Scharer, E., Bundman, D., Longley, M.A., Bickenbach, J., Kawachi, Y., Suga, Y., Zhou, Z., Huber, M., Hohl, D., Kartasova, T., Jarnik, M., Steven, A.C., Roop, D.R. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Implication of calpain in caspase activation during B cell clonal deletion. Ruiz-Vela, A., González de Buitrago, G., Martínez-A, C. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Binding of pEL98 protein, an S100-related calcium-binding protein, to nonmuscle tropomyosin. Takenaga, K., Nakamura, Y., Sakiyama, S., Hasegawa, Y., Sato, K., Endo, H. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunoelectron microscopic localization of neural cell adhesion molecules (L1, N-CAM, and myelin-associated glycoprotein) in regenerating adult mouse sciatic nerve. Martini, R., Schachner, M. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Coupled transcription and processing of mouse ribosomal RNA in a cell-free system. Mishima, Y., Mitsuma, T., Ogata, K. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Forskolin induction of S-100 protein in glioma and hybrid cells. Higashida, H., Sano, M., Kato, K. J. Cell. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Biochemical fractionation reveals association of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) 3b with Dnmt1 and that of Dnmt 3a with a histone H3 methyltransferase and Hdac1. Datta, J., Ghoshal, K., Sharma, S.M., Tajima, S., Jacob, S.T. J. Cell. Biochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of glial progenitor markers p75(NTR) and S100 protein in the developing mouse parathyroid gland. Kameda, Y. Cell Tissue Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Impaired cardiac contractility response to hemodynamic stress in S100A1-deficient mice. Du, X.J., Cole, T.J., Tenis, N., Gao, X.M., Köntgen, F., Kemp, B.E., Heierhorst, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Interaction of metastasis associated Mts1 protein with nonmuscle myosin. Ford, H.L., Zain, S.B. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. A new specific method for measuring S-100B in serum. Stigbrand, T., Nyberg, L., Ullén, A., Haglid, K., Sandström, E., Brundell, J. Int. J. Biol. Markers (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Transcriptional down-regulation of the metastasis-inducing S100A4 (p9Ka) in benign but not in malignant rat mammary epithelial cells by GC-factor. Chen, D., Davies, M.P., Rudland, P.S., Barraclough, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Separation of extremely acidic proteins, S-100 proteins and calmodulin, in some bovine tissues and mammalian brains by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the absence of denaturing agents. Manabe, T., Jitzukawa, S., Ishioka, N., Isobe, T., Okuyama, T. J. Biochem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Time dependent alterations of co-localization of S100beta and GFAP in the MPTP-treated mice. Himeda, T., Watanabe, Y., Tounai, H., Hayakawa, N., Kato, H., Araki, T. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. S100A1-deficient male mice exhibit increased exploratory activity and reduced anxiety-related responses. Ackermann, G.E., Marenholz, I., Wolfer, D.P., Chan, W.Y., Sch??fer, B., Erne, P., Heizmann, C.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Spectral studies on the calcium-binding properties of Mts1 protein and its interaction with target protein. Dukhanina, E.A., Dukhanin, A.S., Lomonosov, M.Y., Lukanidin, E.M., Georgiev, G.P. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of the S100 chemotactic protein, CP-10, in murine microvascular endothelial cells by proinflammatory stimuli. Yen, T., Harrison, C.A., Devery, J.M., Leong, S., Iismaa, S.E., Yoshimura, T., Geczy, C.L. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Purification and structural analysis of a murine chemotactic cytokine (CP-10) with sequence homology to S100 proteins. Lackmann, M., Cornish, C.J., Simpson, R.J., Moritz, R.L., Geczy, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Calcyclin-like protein from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells. Ca2+ and Zn2+ binding, distribution and target protein. Filipek, A., Kuznicki, J. Acta Biochim. Pol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. The gene encoding the calcium binding protein calcyclin is expressed at sites of exocytosis in the mouse. Timmons, P.M., Chan, C.T., Rigby, P.W., Poirier, F. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. S100a0 (alpha alpha) protein in cardiac muscle. Isolation from human cardiac muscle and ultrastructural localization. Haimoto, H., Kato, K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Bax in murine thymus is a soluble monomeric protein that displays differential detergent-induced conformations. Hsu, Y.T., Youle, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. Donato, R. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression of members of the S100 Ca2+-binding protein family in guinea-pig smooth muscle. Daub, B., Schroeter, M., Pfitzer, G., Ganitkevich, V. Cell Calcium (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the "brain-specific" proteins 14-3-2 and S-100. Haan, E.A., Boss, B.D., Cowan, W.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities