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Gene Review

FOS  -  FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: AP-1, C-FOS, Cellular oncogene fos, G0/G1 switch regulatory protein 7, G0S7, ...
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Disease relevance of FOS


Psychiatry related information on FOS


High impact information on FOS

  • These results raise the possibility that FOS and JUN participate in the regulation of MYC [6].
  • A FOS protein is present in a complex that binds a negative regulator of MYC [6].
  • Recovered populations were verified to be both viable and unstressed by evaluation of the transcriptional expression of two genes, HSPA6 and FOS, known indicators of cellular stress [7].
  • In vitro inhibition of FOS using small interfering RNA and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin (statin) affected monocyte activation and suggested an important role in pathogenesis [8].
  • The Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins osteosarcoma (FOS) gene was significantly increased in patients, and the highest levels of FOS associated with patients who had previously undergone coronary revascularization [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of FOS

  • Lack of adverse toxicity seen with CMI at this dosage is consistent with a similar lack of significant toxicity exhibited by other dietary carbohydrates (sorbitol, sucrose, glucose), oligofructoses (inulin/FOS) and carboxylated cellulose in repeated-dose rat studies at approximately the same dosage [9].
  • 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galactonononic acid; KDO, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid; FOS, fructooligosaccharides; GF5, GF6, and GF7, oligofructans: Hib, Haemophilus influenzae type b; FAB, fast atom bombardment; ESI, electrospray ionization; MALDI-TOF, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight [10].

Biological context of FOS

  • Perturbations in the expression levels of the proto-oncogenes FOS, JUN and MYC after exposure to sham and RF fields were assessed by real-time RT-PCR [11].
  • Consequently, a short-term reduction in gene expression in microgravity may have a more dramatic effect over the long term, since both the JUN and FOS protein families are required for normal cell cycle progression [12].
  • 3. The c-fos gene (FOS), localised to 14q24.3-q31, is a candidate for the AD gene since it may be involved in the transcription regulation of the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) [4].
  • The 4 exons of FOS were sequenced in one pathologically confirmed AD patient in each family [4].
  • The RFLP is detected in BstNI digested DNA and is located near the 3' end of FOS [4].

Anatomical context of FOS

  • Multivariate analysis independently demonstrated a significant prognostic value for lymph node involvement, VEGF and FOS [13].
  • Although the efficiency of AdA- FOS in therapy would need to be further analyzed with other cisplatin-resistant and mdr cell lines, these results suggest that AP-1 is a therapeutic molecular target and that inhibition of AP-1 DNA binding may be of clinical value in treating chemotherapeutic resistance [14].
  • Since proto-oncogenes play a central role in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation, localization of MYC, FOS, and JUN proteins has been studied in the testis of the lizard, Podarcis s. sicula, during the annual reproductive cycle by immunocytochemistry using antisera against c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun products [15].
  • The pAT 133 gene is immediately induced, with FOS-like kinetics, in human T cells and in fibroblasts [16].
  • Intrinsic to this maturation is the induction of a class of immediate early genes in the monocyte that includes the transcription factors JUN and FOS [17].

Associations of FOS with chemical compounds

  • In freshly isolated cells, both FOS and FOSB mRNAs increase dramatically in response to the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide [18].
  • The exchange of either leucine 1, 3, or 5 of the leucine repeat of FOS B to a proline dramatically inhibits its association with JUN proteins [19].
  • 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate synergistically induce monocytic cell differentiation: FOS and RB expression [20].
  • Unique patterns of FOS, phospho-CREB and BrdU immunoreactivity in the female rat brain following chronic stress and citalopram treatment [21].
  • 8-Cl-cAMP increased the level of cAMP-response element (CRE) binding protein in addition to inducing FOS mRNA, whose promoter contains CRE [22].

Physical interactions of FOS

  • Thus, JUN and FOS bind to the AP-1 site in the promoters of cellular genes and activate their transcription, resulting in maturation of the monocyte into a macrophage [17].

Regulatory relationships of FOS

  • In this resistance profile, FOS was up-regulated and NM23 down-regulated [23].
  • These results demonstrate that any major alteration in the alpha-helical structure of the 'leucine zipper' completely inhibits the interaction of FOS B with any of the three JUN proteins [19].
  • Here it is reported that in animal cap explants of the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl, noggin can induce upregulation of a FOS-related protein in a calcium-dependent manner [24].

Other interactions of FOS

  • Differential sensitivity of FOS and JUN family members to calpains [25].
  • FRA-1, a member of the FOS family of transcription factors, is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, and contributes to tumor progression [26].
  • These differences in expression of FOS and FOSB suggest different roles and regulation [18].
  • Induction of cyclin gene expression by serum is reduced concomitantly with the decline in FOS induction in aging HDFs, suggesting a possible relationship to the decrease in the proliferative response to mitogens during cellular senescence [27].
  • The oncogene FOS was the most overexpressed gene (from eight- to 14-fold), followed by tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor 1 (TNFRSF1A) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FOS


  1. Immunohistochemical detection of RAS, JUN, FOS, and p53 oncoprotein expression in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Magrisso, I.J., Richmond, R.E., Carter, J.H., Pross, C.B., Gilfillen, R.A., Carter, H.W. Lab. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Drastically increased expression of MYC and FOS protooncogenes during in vitro differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. Larsson, L.G., Gray, H.E., Tötterman, T., Pettersson, U., Nilsson, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Helicobacter pylori infection activates FOS and stress-response genes and alters expression of genes in gastric cancer-specific loci. Myllykangas, S., Monni, O., Nagy, B., Rautelin, H., Knuutila, S. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic analysis of the cellular oncogene fos in patients with chromosome 14 encoded Alzheimer's disease. Cruts, M., Backhovens, H., Martin, J.J., van Broeckhoven, C. Neurosci. Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. FOS and ZENK responses in 45-day-old zebra finches vary with auditory stimulus and brain region, but not sex. Bailey, D.J., Wade, J. Behav. Brain Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A FOS protein is present in a complex that binds a negative regulator of MYC. Hay, N., Takimoto, M., Bishop, J.M. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Microfluidic sorting of mammalian cells by optical force switching. Wang, M.M., Tu, E., Raymond, D.E., Yang, J.M., Zhang, H., Hagen, N., Dees, B., Mercer, E.M., Forster, A.H., Kariv, I., Marchand, P.J., Butler, W.F. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Circulating transcriptome reveals markers of atherosclerosis. Patino, W.D., Mian, O.Y., Kang, J.G., Matoba, S., Bartlett, L.D., Holbrook, B., Trout, H.H., Kozloff, L., Hwang, P.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Toxicological profile of carboxymethyl inulin. Johannsen, F.R. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Carbohydrate analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection: the potential is still growing. Cataldi, T.R., Campa, C., De Benedetto, G.E. Fresenius' journal of analytical chemistry. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Gene expression analysis of a human lymphoblastoma cell line exposed in vitro to an intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency field. Chauhan, V., Mariampillai, A., Bellier, P.V., Qutob, S.S., Gajda, G.B., Lemay, E., Thansandote, A., McNamee, J.P. Radiat. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of gravity on the cellular response to epidermal growth factor. Rijken, P.J., Boonstra, J., Verkleij, A.J., de Laat, S.W. Adv. Space Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Prognostic value of ERBB-1, VEGF, cyclin A, FOS, JUN and MYC in patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas. Volm, M., Rittgen, W., Drings, P. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Adenoviral delivery of A-FOS, an AP-1 dominant negative, selectively inhibits drug resistance in two human cancer cell lines. Bonovich, M., Olive, M., Reed, E., O'Connell, B., Vinson, C. Cancer Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Proto-oncogene activity in the testis of the lizard, Podarcis s. sicula, during the annual reproductive cycle. Chieffi, P., Angelini, F., Pierantoni, R. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Clone pAT 133 identifies a gene that encodes another human member of a class of growth factor-induced genes with almost identical zinc-finger domains. Müller, H.J., Skerka, C., Bialonski, A., Zipfel, P.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Lentivirus infection of macrophages. Clements, J.E., Zink, M.C., Narayan, O., Gabuzda, D.H. Immunol. Ser. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Sequence analysis and expression in cultured lymphocytes of the human FOSB gene (G0S3). Heximer, S.P., Cristillo, A.D., Russell, L., Forsdyke, D.R. DNA Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Integrity of FOS B leucine zipper is essential for its interaction with JUN proteins. Ryseck, R.P., Kovary, K., Bravo, R. Oncogene (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. 1,25-Dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate synergistically induce monocytic cell differentiation: FOS and RB expression. Yen, A., Coles, M., Varvayanis, S. J. Cell. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Unique patterns of FOS, phospho-CREB and BrdU immunoreactivity in the female rat brain following chronic stress and citalopram treatment. Kuipers, S.D., Trentani, A., Westenbroek, C., Bramham, C.R., Korf, J., Kema, I.P., Ter Horst, G.J., Den Boer, J.A. Neuropharmacology (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Inhibitory effect of 8-chloro-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate on cell growth of gastric carcinoma cell lines. Takanashi, A., Yasui, W., Yoshida, K., Yokozaki, H., Saito, D., Abe, K., Urakami, K., Miki, K., Tahara, E. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Protein expression profiles indicative for drug resistance of non-small cell lung cancer. Volm, M., Koomägi, R., Mattern, J., Efferth, T. Br. J. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Noggin upregulates Fos expression by a calcium-mediated pathway in amphibian embryos. Leclerc, C., Duprat, A.M., Moreau, M. Dev. Growth Differ. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Differential sensitivity of FOS and JUN family members to calpains. Carillo, S., Pariat, M., Steff, A.M., Roux, P., Etienne-Julan, M., Lorca, T., Piechaczyk, M. Oncogene (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Mitogen regulated induction of FRA-1 proto-oncogene is controlled by the transcription factors binding to both serum and TPA response elements. Adiseshaiah, P., Peddakama, S., Zhang, Q., Kalvakolanu, D.V., Reddy, S.P. Oncogene (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Growth-regulated expression of D-type cyclin genes in human diploid fibroblasts. Won, K.A., Xiong, Y., Beach, D., Gilman, M.Z. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Gene expression profiling of ameloblastoma and human tooth germ by means of a cDNA microarray. Heikinheimo, K., Jee, K.J., Niini, T., Aalto, Y., Happonen, R.P., Leivo, I., Knuutila, S. J. Dent. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Presence and expression of the simian virus-40 genome in human giant cell tumors of bone. Gamberi, G., Benassi, M.S., Pompetti, F., Ferrari, C., Ragazzini, P., Sollazzo, M.R., Molendini, L., Merli, M., Magagnoli, G., Chiesa, F., Gobbi, A.G., Powers, A., Picci, P. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. c-fos mRNA and FOS protein expression is induced by Ca2+ influx in GH3B6 pituitary cells. Li, S.L., Cougnon, N., Bresson-Bépoldin, L., Zhao, S.J., Schlegel, W. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. The ratio of retinoblastoma (RB) to fos and RB to myc expression during the cell cycle. Yen, A., Varvayanis, S. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparative mapping of IGHG1, IGHM, FES, and FOS in domestic cattle. Tobin-Janzen, T.C., Womack, J.E. Immunogenetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Fos family member changes in nucleus caudalis neurons after primary afferent stimulation: enhancement of fos B and c-fos. Walther, D., Takemura, M., Uhl, G. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
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