The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

AMT  -  aminomethyltransferase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Aminomethyltransferase, mitochondrial, GCE, GCST, GCVT, Glycine cleavage system T protein, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of AMT


Psychiatry related information on AMT

  • There was a highly significant (P less than .001; slope = 1.2) linear correlation between the AMT-inhibiting potencies of AMPH analogs and their potencies in stimulating locomotor activity in rodents [6].
  • We used a novel EEG-based measure (the Awake Maintenance Task, AMT) to determine objectively whether patients on chronic, stable AED therapy had impaired ability to maintain wakefulness [7].
  • 3. Compared with patients not taking diuretics, diuretic-users were older (mean +/- s.d., 70 years +/- 14 vs 54 +/- 20, P < 0.001), had lower abbreviated mental test scores (AMT scores seven or less, 21% vs 9%, chi 2 = 3.48, P = 0.06) and were prescribed more drugs (5.0 +/- 2.4 vs 3.2 +/- 2.0, P < 0.001) [8].
  • Comparison of these results with those of a previous study in which the AMT and PMT regions were removed jointly (Aggleton and Mishkin 1983) suggests that damage in either region can induce a memory loss but that combined damage to both is required to produce a full-blown amnesia [9].
  • Resting (RMT) and active (AMT) motor threshold, cortical and peripheral silent period, evaluation of motor imagery, reaction time and premovement facilitation of motor evoked potential (MEP) were tested bilaterally using TMS [10].

High impact information on AMT

  • Intact HeLa cells were treated with AMT, and high molecular weight RNA was isolated under denaturing conditions from nuclei or from subnuclear fractions [11].
  • Brief intrapulmonary infusions of AG (140 mg), AMT (0.12 mg), and EIT (0.12 mg) increased basal PVR by 82, 69, and 77%, respectively (P < 0.05) [12].
  • RNA blot analysis using polyacrylamide gels demonstrated that RNA from AMT-treated virus had a slowed migration, consistent with it being a single-stranded circle [13].
  • Using 1.0 Joule/cm2 UVA, the lowest dose of S-59, AMT and 8-MOP required to reduce the number of T cells to the limit of detection was 0.05 micromol/L, 1.0 micromol/L, and 10.0 micromol/L, respectively [14].
  • (2) Cytokine synthesis: Treatment with 1.9 Joules/cm2 UVA and 150 micromol/L S-59 or AMT completely inhibited synthesis of the cytokine IL-8 by contaminating leukocytes during 5 days of platelet storage [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of AMT


Biological context of AMT

  • Mutation analysis was performed by sequencing all GLDC, GCSH and AMT exons [20].
  • In plants, the AMT gene family can be subdivided according to their amino-acid sequences into three subfamilies: a large subfamily of AMT1 genes and two additional subfamilies each with single members (LeAMT1;3 from tomato and AtAMT2;1 from Arabidopsis thaliana) [21].
  • 4'-aminomethyl-4,5',8--trimethyl-psoralen (AMT) has a high affinity for both RNA and DNA and can be shown to cause mitotic abortion when centriolar regions of prophase PTK2 cells and reacted with AMT and 365-nm laser light [22].
  • These large variations of AMT levels as a function of P450 suggest that major interindividual differences may be observed in the pharmacokinetics and formation of this metabolite that may affect the pharmacodynamic properties of zidovudine [3].
  • Globin mRNA stability was not affected by either 100 microM AZT or AMT, as measured after blockage of transcription with actinomycin D [23].

Anatomical context of AMT

  • These cells were labeled with the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of [3H]aminopterin (AMT), the isolated plasma membrane alkaline washed to remove nonintegral membrane proteins, detergent-solubilized, and RFT-separated on an anti-AMT antibody-protein G-Sepharose column followed by preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [24].
  • A cross-adsorption analysis demonstrated that each of the three cell lines differed in their adsorbing efficiency to remove AMT antibodies reactive with the reciprocal cell lines [2].
  • The conserved family of AMT/Rh proteins facilitates ammonium transport across animal, plant, and microbial membranes [25].
  • These differences include transport at the blood-brain barrier and the presence of a large unmetabolized pool of AMT, precluding the method from providing the absolute serotonin synthesis rate [26].
  • Studies using human hematopoietic progenitor cells demonstrated that AMT was 5- to 7-fold more toxic to human colony-forming units granulocyte-macrophage and burst-forming units erythroid than was AZT [27].

Associations of AMT with chemical compounds

  • Using functional complementation of yeast mutants, it has been possible to identify a new class of membrane proteins, the ammonium transporter/methylammonium permease (AMT/MEP) family, that mediate secondary active ammonium uptake in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms [21].
  • The zidovudine/AMT plasma peak concentration and area under the concentration-time curve ratios were approximately 8 and 5, respectively [4].
  • In addition to unchanged drug and its 5'-O-glucuronide (zidovudine glucuronide), two novel catabolites of zidovudine were detected as 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine (AMT), and its 5'-O-glucuronide (GAMT) [4].
  • AMT glucuronide was not detected in urine or plasma, and only low levels of this catabolite were detected in bile [4].
  • However, although AMT is similar to 2-deoxyglucose with regard to an irreversible pool of tracer uptake, there are important differences between the two tracers and how the model can be applied [26].

Regulatory relationships of AMT

  • The enhanced NO production by IL-15 was inhibited by AMT, an iNOS-specific inhibitor [28].
  • AMT (100 microM) did not affect L-arginine transport studied by electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing either the human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-1 or hCAT-2B [29].

Other interactions of AMT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AMT


  1. Comprehensive mutation analysis of GLDC, AMT, and GCSH in nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Kure, S., Kato, K., Dinopoulos, A., Gail, C., DeGrauw, T.J., Christodoulou, J., Bzduch, V., Kalmanchey, R., Fekete, G., Trojovsky, A., Plecko, B., Breningstall, G., Tohyama, J., Aoki, Y., Matsubara, Y. Hum. Mutat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of two differentiation antigens on normal and cultured human T cells. Ades, E.W., Bukacek, A., Zwerner, R.K., Dougherty, P.A., Balch, C.M. J. Immunol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Reduction of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine to 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine in human liver microsomes and its relationship to cytochrome P450. Placidi, L., Cretton, E.M., Placidi, M., Sommadossi, J.P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical pharmacokinetics of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine) and catabolites with formation of a toxic catabolite, 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine. Stagg, M.P., Cretton, E.M., Kidd, L., Diasio, R.B., Sommadossi, J.P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of hydroxyl radical scavengers on relaxation of supercoiled DNA by aminomethyl-trimethyl-psoralen and monochromatic UVA photons. Oroskar, A.A., Lambert, C., Peak, M.J. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Interactions of [3H]amphetamine with rat brain synaptosomes. II. Active transport. Zaczek, R., Culp, S., De Souza, E.B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Assessment of drowsiness in epilepsy patients receiving chronic antiepileptic drug therapy. Salinsky, M.C., Oken, B.S., Binder, L.M. Epilepsia (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Patient knowledge about diuretic prescription. Bevan, E.G., Currie, E.M., McGhee, S.M., McInnes, G.T. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Memory impairments following restricted medial thalamic lesions in monkeys. Aggleton, J.P., Mishkin, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Unilateral cerebellar stroke disrupts movement preparation and motor imagery. Battaglia, F., Quartarone, A., Ghilardi, M.F., Dattola, R., Bagnato, S., Rizzo, V., Morgante, L., Girlanda, P. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Base-pairing interactions between small nuclear RNAs and nuclear RNA precursors as revealed by psoralen cross-linking in vivo. Calvet, J.P., Pederson, T. Cell (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the late gestation ovine fetus. Rairigh, R.L., Le Cras, T.D., Ivy, D.D., Kinsella, J.P., Richter, G., Horan, M.P., Fan, I.D., Abman, S.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Genomic RNAs of influenza viruses are held in a circular conformation in virions and in infected cells by a terminal panhandle. Hsu, M.T., Parvin, J.D., Gupta, S., Krystal, M., Palese, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Inactivation of leukocytes in platelet concentrates by photochemical treatment with psoralen plus UVA. Grass, J.A., Hei, D.J., Metchette, K., Cimino, G.D., Wiesehahn, G.P., Corash, L., Lin, L. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. AMT catalepsy and hypokinesia: interaction with morphine and cocaine. Papeschi, R., Theiss, P., Ayhan, H. Psychopharmacologia. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Anticancer antifolates: current status and future directions. McGuire, J.J. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective protection of toxicity of 2',3'-dideoxypyrimidine nucleoside analogs by beta-D-uridine in human granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells. Faraj, A., Schinazi, R.F., Xie, M.Y., Gosselin, G., Perigaud, C., Imbach, J.L., Sommadossi, J.P. Antiviral Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Long-term treatment of tardive dyskinesia with presynaptically acting dopamine-depleting agents. Fahn, S. Advances in neurology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid color flow doppler sonography and radioiodine uptake in 55 consecutive patients with amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. Bogazzi, F., Martino, E., Dell'Unto, E., Brogioni, S., Cosci, C., Aghini-Lombardi, F., Ceccarelli, C., Pinchera, A., Bartalena, L., Braverman, L.E. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Treatment from birth of nonketotic hyperglycinemia due to a novel GLDC mutation. Korman, S.H., Wexler, I.D., Gutman, A., Rolland, M.O., Kanno, J., Kure, S. Ann. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. The molecular physiology of ammonium uptake and retrieval. von Wirén, N., Gazzarrini, S., Gojon, A., Frommer, W.B. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence for centriolar region RNA functioning in spindle formation in dividing PTK2 cells. Peterson, S.P., Berns, M.W. J. Cell. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Comparative effects of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and its metabolite 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine on hemoglobin synthesis in K-562 human leukemia cells. Weidner, D.A., Bridges, E.G., Cretton, E.M., Sommadossi, J.P. Mol. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Ligand-directed immunoaffinity purification and properties of the one-carbon, reduced folate transporter. Interspecies immuno-cross-reactivity and expression of the native transporter in murine and human tumor cells and their transport-altered variants. Chiao, J.H., Yang, C.H., Roy, K., Pain, J., Sirotnak, F.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Different transport mechanisms in plant and human AMT/Rh-type ammonium transporters. Mayer, M., Schaaf, G., Mouro, I., Lopez, C., Colin, Y., Neumann, P., Cartron, J.P., Ludewig, U. J. Gen. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Alpha[C-11]methyl-L-tryptophan PET maps brain serotonin synthesis and kynurenine pathway metabolism. Chugani, D.C., Muzik, O. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Catabolism of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine in hepatocytes and liver microsomes, with evidence of formation of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine, a highly toxic catabolite for human bone marrow cells. Cretton, E.M., Xie, M.Y., Bevan, R.J., Goudgaon, N.M., Schinazi, R.F., Sommadossi, J.P. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. IL-15 up-regulates iNOS expression and NO production by gingival epithelial cells. Yanagita, M., Shimabukuro, Y., Nozaki, T., Yoshimura, N., Watanabe, J., Koide, H., Terakura, M., Saho, T., Takedachi, M., Jang, M.H., Kiyono, H., Murakami, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase abrogates lipopolysaccharides-induced up-regulation of L-arginine uptake in rat alveolar macrophages. Hammermann, R., Stichnote, C., Closs, E.I., Nawrath, H., Racké, K. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of human liver P450s and cytochrome b5 in the reductive metabolism of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) to 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine. Pan-Zhou, X.R., Cretton-Scott, E., Zhou, X.J., Yang, M.X., Lasker, J.M., Sommadossi, J.P. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. The metabolism of zidovudine by human liver microsomes in vitro: formation of 3'-amino-3'-deoxythymidine. Eagling, V.A., Howe, J.L., Barry, M.J., Back, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Differential expression of nitric oxide synthase in human stomach cancer. Koh, E., Noh, S.H., Lee, Y.D., Lee, H.Y., Han, J.W., Lee, H.W., Hong, S. Cancer Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. A simple reliable assay for myeloperoxidase activity in mixed neutrophil-eosinophil cell suspensions: application to detection of myeloperoxidase deficiency. Cramer, R., Soranzo, M.R., Dri, P., Menegazzi, R., Pitotti, A., Zabucchi, G., Patriarca, P. J. Immunol. Methods (1984) [Pubmed]
  34. Zidovudine azido-reductase in human liver microsomes: activation by ethacrynic acid, dipyridamole, and indomethacin and inhibition by human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. Fayz, S., Inaba, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Comparative metabolism of the antiviral dimer 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-P-2',3'-dideoxyinosine and the monomers zidovudine and didanosine by rat, monkey, and human hepatocytes. Pan-Zhou, X.R., Cretton-Scott, E., Zhou, X.J., Xie, M.Y., Rahmani, R., Schinazi, R.F., Duchin, K., Sommadossi, J.P. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities