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Gene Review

HDLBP  -  high density lipoprotein binding protein

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: HBP, HDL-binding protein, High density lipoprotein-binding protein, PRO2900, VGL, ...
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Disease relevance of HDLBP

  • Although the exact function of HBP/vigilin is unknown, its expression in plaque macrophages suggests a role for this molecule in atherogenesis [1].
  • The vigilin gene is localized in a chromosomal region comprising a cluster of collagen genes (COLIVA3, COLVIA3) and the locus of the Waardenburg syndrome I. Only one mRNA species of 4.4 kb is transcribed from the human vigilin gene [2].
  • Analysis of tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis revealed recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes to the infectious site, combined with the release of HBP [3].
  • The results show that M protein, in synergy with HBP, evokes an inflammatory response that may contribute to the profound pathophysiological consequences seen in severe streptococcal infections [3].
  • Systolic hypertension was probably underrecognized, since 30% who reported a value of 140 mm Hg or higher indicated they did not have HBP [4].

Psychiatry related information on HDLBP

  • The prevalence of HBP, obesity, and low physical activity was determined in 1413 adolescents ages 12-15 years (705 males, 698 females) randomly selected from Turin school children [5].
  • The purpose of this article is to explore, critique, and elaborate upon the study of racism as it relates to HBP research [6].
  • One hypothesis proposes excessive platelet activating factor, a potent vasodilator, as a contributor, implying that there should be a negative association between dyslexia and high blood pressure (HBP) [7].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cumulative stressful life events have a negative effect on mental health and quality of life in young Black men with HBP [8].
  • The veteran population in the mainland has a higher tendency for obesity, high blood pressure (HBP), sleep disorders and chronic alcohol consumption (Mustafa M, Erokwu N, Ebose I, Strohl K, Sleep Breath, 9:57-63, 2005) [9].

High impact information on HDLBP

  • Moreover, selective inactivation of HBP prevented the neutrophils from inducing endothelial hyperpermeability [10].
  • HBP induced Ca++-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement and intercellular gap formation in endothelial-cell monolayers in vitro, and increased macromolecular efflux in microvessels in vivo [10].
  • Heparin-binding protein (HBP/CAP37): a missing link in neutrophil-evoked alteration of vascular permeability [10].
  • The availability of purified PMR-1 and recombinant vigilin made it possible to test the hypothesis that RNA-binding proteins interact with cis-acting elements to stabilize target mRNAs by blocking cleavage by site-specific mRNA endonucleases [11].
  • These processes correlate with increased polysomal activity of a sequence-selective mRNA endonuclease, PMR-1, and a hnRNP K homology-domain RNA-binding protein, vigilin [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of HDLBP


Biological context of HDLBP


Anatomical context of HDLBP


Associations of HDLBP with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of HDLBP

  • Using this information, we predicted and subsequently identified a strong vigilin binding site near the 3' end of human dystrophin mRNA [24].

Other interactions of HDLBP

  • Our results suggest further that vigilin and exportin-t might interact during tRNA export, provide evidence that the channeled tRNA cycle is already initiated in the nucleus, and illustrate that intracellular tRNA trafficking is associated with discrete changes in the composition of cellular cytoplasmic multi-protein complexes containing tRNA [25].
  • In the presence of RNA, the Vigilin complex recruits the DNA-PKcs enzyme, which appears to phosphorylate a discrete set of targets, some or all of which are known to participate in chromatin silencing [21].
  • Vigilin, a 150-kDa protein, contains 14 tandemly arranged domains, each consisting of a KH RNA-binding motif and a spacer region [26].
  • These genes include those encoding various apolipoproteins (apo), including apoA-I, apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoB, apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, and apo(a), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), HDL-binding protein, lipoprotein lipase, and the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor [27].
  • For six candidate gene loci, including apolipoprotein(apo)B, apoAII, apo(a), apoE-CI-CII, lipoprotein lipase, and high-density lipoprotein-binding protein, no evidence for linkage was observed by sib-pair linkage analyses (P values ranged from .24 to .81) [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HDLBP

  • Nuclear microinjection experiments revealed for the first time that the immuno-affinity-purified nuclear vigilin core complex (VCC(N)) as well as recombinant vigilin accelerate tRNA export from the nucleus in human cells [25].
  • Immunostaining of HEp-2 cells, gel filtration of a cytoplasmic extract of HEp-2 cells and westernblot analysis of isolated 80S ribosomes clearly demonstrate that vigilin is bond to the ribosomal complex [18].
  • During in vitro maintenance of primary cell cultures, as well as of a growth-factor-dependent cell line, vigilin expression decreases and ceases in senescent cells [29].
  • Direct observation and flow cytometry in non-mitotic, serum-starved, HeLa cells showed that RNAi-mediated vigilin knockdown is rapidly lethal, indicating an essential function for vigilin distinct from its proposed role in chromosome partitioning [30].
  • The prevalences of HBP and BHBP were twofold greater with the standard cuff than with the large adult or thigh cuffs in obese patients (arm circumference greater than or equal to 35 cm or body mass index greater than or equal to 34 or weight greater than or equal to 95 kg) [31].


  1. High-density lipoprotein-binding protein (HBP)/vigilin is expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions and colocalizes with apolipoprotein E. Chiu, D.S., Oram, J.F., LeBoeuf, R.C., Alpers, C.E., O'Brien, K.D. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The human vigilin gene: identification, chromosomal localization and expression pattern. Plenz, G., Kügler, S., Schnittger, S., Rieder, H., Fonatsch, C., Müller, P.K. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Streptococcal M protein: a multipotent and powerful inducer of inflammation. Påhlman, L.I., Mörgelin, M., Eckert, J., Johansson, L., Russell, W., Riesbeck, K., Soehnlein, O., Lindbom, L., Norrby-Teglund, A., Schumann, R.R., Björck, L., Herwald, H. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of older americans about high blood pressure: implications for health care policy, education, and research. Egan, B.M., Lackland, D.T., Cutler, N.E. Arch. Intern. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence: prevalence and familial aggregation. Rabbia, F., Veglio, F., Pinna, G., Oliva, S., Surgo, V., Rolando, B., Bessone, A., Melchio, R., Chiandussi, L. Preventive medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The association between racism and high blood pressure among African Americans. Boutain, D.M., Cooke, C. Ethnicity & disease. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Dyslexia and familial high blood pressure: an observational pilot study. Taylor, K., Stein, J. Arch. Dis. Child. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of stressful life events in young black men with high blood pressure. Han, H.R., Kim, M.T., Rose, L., Dennison, C., Bone, L., Hill, M.N. Ethnicity & disease. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The veteran population: one at high risk for sleep-disordered breathing. Ocasio-Tascón, M.E., Alicea-Colón, E., Torres-Palacios, A., Rodríguez-Cintrón, W. Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Heparin-binding protein (HBP/CAP37): a missing link in neutrophil-evoked alteration of vascular permeability. Gautam, N., Olofsson, A.M., Herwald, H., Iversen, L.F., Lundgren-Akerlund, E., Hedqvist, P., Arfors, K.E., Flodgaard, H., Lindbom, L. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Vigilin binding selectively inhibits cleavage of the vitellogenin mRNA 3'-untranslated region by the mRNA endonuclease polysomal ribonuclease 1. Cunningham, K.S., Dodson, R.E., Nagel, M.A., Shapiro, D.J., Schoenberg, D.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Technetium-99m galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin: preparation and preclinical studies. Vera, D.R., Stadalnik, R.C., Krohn, K.A. J. Nucl. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of a primate model of hypertension. The response of hypertensive and normotensive male vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) to cold pressor stress, captopril administration, and acute bolus of atrial natriuretic factor. Martin, S., Palmour, R.M., Goldwater, R., Gutkowsa, J., Hughes, C., Hamet, P., Ervin, F.R. Am. J. Hypertens. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Rapid detection of the known SNPs of CYP2C9 using oligonucleotide microarray. Wen, S.Y., Wang, H., Sun, O.J., Wang, S.Q. World J. Gastroenterol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Body fatness and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Portuguese children and adolescents. Ribeiro, J.C., Guerra, S., Oliveira, J., Andersen, L.B., Duarte, J.A., Mota, J. Am. J. Hum. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The pituitary-adrenal glucocorticoid response is altered by gender and disease. Greenspan, S.L., Rowe, J.W., Maitland, L.A., McAloon-Dyke, M., Elahi, D. Journal of gerontology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning and expression of a cellular high density lipoprotein-binding protein that is up-regulated by cholesterol loading of cells. McKnight, G.L., Reasoner, J., Gilbert, T., Sundquist, K.O., Hokland, B., McKernan, P.A., Champagne, J., Johnson, C.J., Bailey, M.C., Holly, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Vigilin is co-localized with 80S ribosomes and binds to the ribosomal complex through its C-terminal domain. Vollbrandt, T., Willkomm, D., Stossberg, H., Kruse, C. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of the gene for high-density lipoprotein binding protein (HDLBP) to human chromosome 2q37. Xia, Y.R., Klisak, I., Sparkes, R.S., Oram, J., Lusis, A.J. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Identification and characterization of a high density lipoprotein-binding protein in cell membranes by ligand blotting. Graham, D.L., Oram, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Vigilins bind to promiscuously A-to-I-edited RNAs and are involved in the formation of heterochromatin. Wang, Q., Zhang, Z., Blackwell, K., Carmichael, G.G. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Endocytosis of heparin-binding protein (CAP37) is essential for the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production in human monocytes. Heinzelmann, M., Platz, A., Flodgaard, H., Polk, H.C., Miller, F.N. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Cooperative role for activated alpha4 beta1 integrin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cell adhesion to the heparin III domain of fibronectin. Identification of a novel heparin and cell binding sequence in repeat III5. Moyano, J.V., Carnemolla, B., Albar, J.P., Leprini, A., Gaggero, B., Zardi, L., Garcia-Pardo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. In vitro genetic analysis of the RNA binding site of vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein. Kanamori, H., Dodson, R.E., Shapiro, D.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Export and transport of tRNA are coupled to a multi-protein complex. Kruse, C., Willkomm, D.K., Grünweller, A., Vollbrandt, T., Sommer, S., Busch, S., Pfeiffer, T., Brinkmann, J., Hartmann, R.K., Müller, P.K. Biochem. J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Two additional 5' exons in the human Vigilin gene distinguish it from the chicken gene and provide the structural basis for differential routes of gene expression. Kügler, S., Plenz, G., Müller, P.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Linkage analysis of the genetic determinants of high density lipoprotein concentrations and composition: evidence for involvement of the apolipoprotein A-II and cholesteryl ester transfer protein loci. Bu, X., Warden, C.H., Xia, Y.R., De Meester, C., Puppione, D.L., Teruya, S., Lokensgard, B., Daneshmand, S., Brown, J., Gray, R.J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Multilocus genetic determinants of LDL particle size in coronary artery disease families. Rotter, J.I., Bu, X., Cantor, R.M., Warden, C.H., Brown, J., Gray, R.J., Blanche, P.J., Krauss, R.M., Lusis, A.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Vigilin is a cytoplasmic protein. A study on its expression in primary cells and in established cell lines of different species. Neu-Yilik, G., Zorbas, H., Gloe, T.R., Raabe, H.M., Hopp-Christensen, T.A., Müller, P.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. RNAi-mediated depletion of the 15 KH domain protein, vigilin, induces death of dividing and non-dividing human cells but does not initially inhibit protein synthesis. Goolsby, K.M., Shapiro, D.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Spurious hypertension in the obese patient. Effect of sphygmomanometer cuff size on prevalence of hypertension. Linfors, E.W., Feussner, J.R., Blessing, C.L., Starmer, C.F., Neelon, F.A., McKee, P.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
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