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Gene Review

MT-ND2  -  mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MTND2, NAD2, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2, NADH2, ...
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Disease relevance of MT-ND2


Psychiatry related information on MT-ND2


High impact information on MT-ND2

  • We present new mitochondrial DNA sequences, approximately 2,100 base pairs from the genes encoding ND1, ND2, COI, and the intervening tRNA genes for 34 species representing all 10 salamander families, to examine these relationships [9].
  • The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient [10].
  • The geographic distribution of ND2 haplotypes is consistent with roles for multiple founder events and introgressive hybridization in the evolution of cave-related phenotypes [11].
  • We have assessed the expression of the mitochondrial ND2 and ND5 (subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase complex) genes and the nuclear UCP2 (uncoupling protein 2) gene in 22 oxyphilic thyroid tumors and matched controls [12].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of a longevity-associated mitochondrial genotype (Mt5178A) derived from a C --> A transversion at nucleotide position 5178 of mitochondrial DNA, which causes a Leu-to-Met substitution within the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene, in type 2 diabetic subjects [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of MT-ND2


Biological context of MT-ND2


Anatomical context of MT-ND2

  • As complex I genes are the most vulnerable part of mtDNA we analyzed the mitochondrial MTND1 and MTND2 genes of 10 substantia nigra and 85 platelet samples from PD patients [21].
  • The somata of ND2 cells were medium-sized (mean, 8.2 microns) and located in the INL and in the GCL; their dendrites were usually beaded and often spread in either the middle or outer strata of the IPL [22].
  • NADPH-diaphorase reactivity was observed in three different classes of amacrine cells (ND1, ND2, ND3 cells) and in the cone photoreceptors [22].
  • Since this finding suggested that ND2 gene expression was related to myeloid differentiation, we here investigated the effects of rotenone, a specific NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor, on HL-60 cell growth, differentiation and death [23].
  • To determine whether deletions in the minor region also contribute to the ageing process, we analyzed a 3,610-basepair deletion (nucleotide position 1,837-5,447, from the 16S rRNA gene to the ND2 gene) in the skeletal muscle from individuals of various ages [24].

Associations of MT-ND2 with chemical compounds

  • In one individual, we detected a T-to-C transition at position 1243 in the 12SrRNA, a change from threonine to alanine at position 67 of the ND1 protein, and from valine to isoleucine at position 197 of the ND2 protein [25].
  • Investigation of the mt-mRNA decay after thiamphenicol treatment indicated that three transcripts (ND2, ND3 and Cyt. b) are significantly stabilized after inhibition of mitochondrial translation [26].
  • The inferred start codon of NADH2 is ATT (isoleucine) [27].
  • This region and part of the adjacent cytochrome c oxydase subunit I (COI) gene were sequenced for two crocodilian, two turtle, and one snake species and for Sphenodon punctatus; part of the adjacent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) gene was also sequenced for the crocodilian and turtle species [20].
  • We provide an independent assessment of the evolutionary history of pantherine lineage using two complete mitochondrial (mt) genes (ND2 and ND4) and the nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 gene, whose utility in carnivoran phylogeny was first explored [28].

Other interactions of MT-ND2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MT-ND2


  1. A molecular phylogeny of the New World orioles (Icterus): the importance of dense taxon sampling. Omland, K.E., Lanyon, S.M., Fritz, S.J. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of a 5178C-->A (Leu237Met) polymorphism in the mitochondrial DNA with a low prevalence of myocardial infarction in Japanese individuals. Takagi, K., Yamada, Y., Gong, J.S., Sone, T., Yokota, M., Tanaka, M. Atherosclerosis (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutated ND2 impairs mitochondrial complex I assembly and leads to Leigh Syndrome. Ugalde, C., Hinttala, R., Timal, S., Smeets, R., Rodenburg, R.J., Uusimaa, J., van Heuvel, L.P., Nijtmans, L.G., Majamaa, K., Smeitink, J.A. Mol. Genet. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Regional heterogeneity of mtDNA heteroplasmy in parkinsonian brain. Schnopp, N.M., Kösel, S., Egensperger, R., Graeber, M.B. Clin. Neuropathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Dissection of signaling pathways in fourteen breast cancer cell lines using reverse-phase protein lysate microarray. Akkiprik, M., Nicorici, D., Cogdell, D., Jia, Y.J., Hategan, A., Tabus, I., Yli-Harja, O., Y, D., Sahin, A., Zhang, W. Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Detection of point mutations in codon 331 of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 in Alzheimer's brains. Lin, F.H., Lin, R., Wisniewski, H.M., Hwang, Y.W., Grundke-Iqbal, I., Healy-Louie, G., Iqbal, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Phenotypic linkage between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of beta3-adrenergic receptor gene and NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 gene, with special reference to eating behavior. Aoyama, M., Shidoji, Y., Saimei, M., Tsunawake, N., Ichinose, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Longevity-associated NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 Leu/Met polymorphism influences the effects of alcohol consumption on serum uric acid levels in nonobese Japanese men. Kokaze, A., Ishikawa, M., Matsunaga, N., Yoshida, M., Satoh, M., Teruya, K., Honmyo, R., Yorimitsu, M., Masuda, Y., Uchida, Y., Takashima, Y. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in salamanders: analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genomic data. Weisrock, D.W., Harmon, L.J., Larson, A. Syst. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. Gibson, R.A., Paleg, L.G. J. Cell. Sci. (1976) [Pubmed]
  11. Evidence for multiple genetic forms with similar eyeless phenotypes in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus. Dowling, T.E., Martasian, D.P., Jeffery, W.R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Defective mitochondrial ATP synthesis in oxyphilic thyroid tumors. Savagner, F., Franc, B., Guyetant, S., Rodien, P., Reynier, P., Malthiery, Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Antiatherogenic mitochondrial genotype in patients with type 2 diabetes. Matsunaga, H., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, M., Gong, J.S., Zhang, J., Nomiyama, T., Ogawa, O., Ogihara, T., Yamada, Y., Yagi, K., Kawamori, R. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Enzyme histochemical studies on the formation of hyalin bodies in the epithelium of odontogenic cysts. Morgan, P., Heyden, G. J. Oral Pathol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytoenzymologic activities of some oxidroeductases and alkaline phosphatase of leucocytes in Basedow, Cushing and Addison diseases. Tasca, L., Onicescu, D. Acta Histochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Departure from neutrality at the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene in humans, but not in chimpanzees. Wise, C.A., Sraml, M., Easteal, S. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Initiation codons in mammalian mitochondria: differences in genetic code in the organelle. Fearnley, I.M., Walker, J.E. Biochemistry (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in oral cancer of betel quid chewers. Tan, D.J., Chang, J., Chen, W.L., Agress, L.J., Yeh, K.T., Wang, B., Wong, L.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhanced expression of mitochondrial genes in senescent endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Kumazaki, T., Sakano, T., Yoshida, T., Hamada, K., Sumida, H., Teranishi, Y., Nishiyama, M., Mitsui, Y. Mech. Ageing Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Evolution of the WANCY region in amniote mitochondrial DNA. Seutin, G., Lang, B.F., Mindell, D.P., Morais, R. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Novel mitochondrial DNA mutations in Parkinson's disease. Richter, G., Sonnenschein, A., Grünewald, T., Reichmann, H., Janetzky, B. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. NADPH-diaphorase neurones of human retinae have a uniform topographical distribution. Provis, J.M., Mitrofanis, J. Vis. Neurosci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Rotenone, a mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase inhibitor, induces cell surface expression of CD13 and CD38 and apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Matsunaga, T., Kudo, J., Takahashi, K., Dohmen, K., Hayashida, K., Okamura, S., Ishibashi, H., Niho, Y. Leuk. Lymphoma (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Deleted mitochondrial DNA in the skeletal muscle of aged individuals. Katayama, M., Tanaka, M., Yamamoto, H., Ohbayashi, T., Nimura, Y., Ozawa, T. Biochem. Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in patients with orthostatic hypotension. Schwartz, F., Baldwin, C.T., Baima, J., Gavras, H. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Differential stability of mitochondrial mRNA in HeLa cells. Piechota, J., Tomecki, R., Gewartowski, K., Szczesny, R., Dmochowska, A., Kudła, M., Dybczyńska, L., Stepien, P.P., Bartnik, E. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. A complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the western lowland gorilla. Xu, X., Arnason, U. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Phylogenetic studies of pantherine cats (Felidae) based on multiple genes, with novel application of nuclear beta-fibrinogen intron 7 to carnivores. Yu, L., Zhang, Y.P. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Mitochondrial DNA complex I and III mutations associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Brown, M.D., Voljavec, A.S., Lott, M.T., Torroni, A., Yang, C.C., Wallace, D.C. Genetics (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Novel heteroplasmic frameshift and missense somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in oral cancer of betel quid chewers. Tan, D.J., Chang, J., Chen, W.L., Agress, L.J., Yeh, K.T., Wang, B., Wong, L.J. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Variation in coding (NADH dehydrogenase subunits 2, 3, and 6) and noncoding intergenic spacer regions of the mitochondrial genome in Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). McFadden, C.S., Tullis, I.D., Hutchinson, M.B., Winner, K., Sohm, J.A. Mar. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. A molecular phylogeographic perspective on a fifty-year-old taxonomic issue in grasshopper systematics. Litzenberger, G., Chapco, W. Heredity (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Structural determinants for ligand binding and catalysis of triosephosphate isomerase. Kursula, I., Partanen, S., Lambeir, A.M., Antonov, D.M., Augustyns, K., Wierenga, R.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. How to tell a sea monster: molecular discrimination of large marine animals of the North Atlantic. Carr, S.M., Marshall, H.D., Johnstone, K.A., Pynn, L.M., Stenson, G.B. Biol. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
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