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Chemical Compound Review

Definity     1,1,1,2,2,3,3,3- octafluoropropane

Synonyms: Optison, Perflutren, Genetron 218, Definity (TN), CHEMBL1663, ...
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Disease relevance of Optison

  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravenous dextrose albumin sonicated with a commonly used gas of low blood solubility and diffusivity (perfluoropropane) could identify acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion [1].
  • In a subset of patients with potentially poor transpulmonary transit of contrast (patients with chronic lung disease or dilated cardiomyopathy), OPTISON more significantly improved the same measures of contrast enhancement compared with ALBUNEX and did so to the same extent as in the overall population [2].
  • OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to report incidence and to assess risk factors of postoperative glaucoma in patients with stage 3 idiopathic macular hole treated with pars plana vitrectomy, removal of posterior hyaloid membrane, and perfluoropropane gas tamponade [3].
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 15 consecutive patients who received intravitreous injection of commercial tPA solution (25-100 microg in 0.1-0.2 ml) and expansile gas (0.3-0.4 ml of perfluoropropane or sulfur hexafluoride) for thrombolysis and displacement of submacular hemorrhage [4].
  • Augmentation of filtering blebs with perfluoropropane gas bubble [5].

Psychiatry related information on Optison

  • Color-encoded images (Philips, color kinesis) were obtained at rest and peak stress in four standard views during i.v. infusion of Definity [6].

High impact information on Optison

  • Anesthetized hairless mice were scanned by using a 2.5-MHz transducer (610-ns pulses with 3.6-kHz repetition frequency and 61-Hz frame rate) after injection of Optison and Evans blue dye [7].
  • METHODS: Over a four-year period, 1,486 patients underwent dobutamine stress RTCE with low mechanical index pulse sequence schemes after intravenous injections of commercially available contrast agents (35% Definity, Bristol Myers Squibb Medical Imaging Inc., North Billerica, Massachusetts; 65% Optison, GE-Amersham, Princeton, New Jersey) [8].
  • The WMA and MCE (using repeated boluses of Optison [Mallinckrodt, St. Louis, Missouri] or Definity [Bristol-Myers Squibb, New York, New York]) were performed at rest, at intermediate stress (65% to 75% of maximal heart rate), and at peak stress [9].
  • Compared with the non-ultrasound treatment, the combination of ultrasound with Optison largely increased the transfection rate of FITC-ODN and Smad7 transgene expression up to a 1000-fold, and this was found in all kidney tissues [10].
  • Adding Optison further increase transfection level and efficiency by 1.5 to three-fold [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Optison

  • In a pilot study of 27 patients, those who presented with chest pain underwent 2 dobutamine stress echocardiographic studies, 1 with high mechanical index harmonic imaging to analyze wall motion without contrast and 1 with real-time low mechanical index perfusion imaging with intravenous Optison to assess myocardial perfusion and wall motion [12].
  • CONCLUSION: The Silicone Study showed that silicone oil and perfluoropropane gas were equal in most respects for the management of retinal detachments with PVR [13].
  • In vivo recordings of real-time imaging with an infusion of a contrast agent (Optison) were obtained in 7 open-chest dogs with graded left anterior descending artery stenosis at baseline and during adenosine hyperemia, and were compared with flow probe measurements [14].
  • The greatest magnitude of percent clot weight reduction was observed with ultrasound energy combined with either t-PA alone (72+/-1% after 30' incubation, p=0.0016) or with the combination of t-PA, tirofiban, heparin and Optison (68+/-4% after 30' incubation, p=0.015) [15].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with suspected ischaemic heart disease had i.v. injections of Tc-Sestamibi and Optison during a dipyridamole stress test for echocardiography in pulse inversion, second harmonic and harmonic power Doppler mode [16].

Biological context of Optison

  • Ultrasound at moderate power (3 W/cm2 1 MHz, 60 s exposure, duty cycle 20%), combined with Optison, increases transfection efficiency in older, but not in young, mice [17].
  • More importantly, Optison markedly reduces muscle damage associated with naked plasmid DNA and the presence of cationic polymer PEI 25000 [17].
  • Five weeks after transfection, the angiographic score and the number of capillary density in rabbits transfected with Optison using ultrasound was significantly increased as compared with HGF plasmid alone (P < 0.01), accompanied by a significant increase in blood flow and blood pressure ratio (P < 0.01) [18].
  • Prediction of the kinetics of disappearance of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluoropropane intraocular gas bubbles [19].
  • Optison enhances TUS-gene transfection by increasing the number of plasmids in the cells and also by distributing the plasmids to more cells, without significant decrease in cell viability [20].

Anatomical context of Optison

  • Luciferase plasmid mixed with or without Optison was transfected into cultured human skeletal muscle cells using ultrasound (1 MHz; 0.4 W(2)) for 30 s [18].
  • Our data suggest that TUS alone affect the cell membrane in a different mechanism than when Optison is used [11].
  • INTERVENTION: Patients were treated by an outpatient method consisting of laser photocoagulation to the foveal pigment epithelium followed by fluid-gas exchange with 20% perfluoropropane gas and prone positioning [21].
  • Clinical studies have been conducted or are currently underway to evaluate Optison in the assessment of acute and chronic ischemic coronary artery disease [22].
  • Therefore, this study suggests that nonexpansile mixtures of perfluoropropane and sulfur hexafluoride may be beneficial and relatively safe in re-forming persistently flat anterior chambers in situations where the use of air is being considered [23].

Associations of Optison with other chemical compounds

  • Pulse inversion Doppler imaging was performed in 117 patients during dobutamine stress echocardiography by using an intravenous bolus of a perfluorocarbon-filled, albumin-(Optison: n = 98) or liposome- (Definity: n = 19) encapsulated microbubble and a mechanical index of <0 [24].
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The use of and protocols for Japan white rabbits were approved by the University of Tokyo Committee on Animal Resources. In vitro experiments were conducted in a 1-mL cylindric space of polyacrylamide gel, which contained different microbubble contrast agents (MRX-133 or perflutren protein-type A microspheres) [25].
  • METHODS: In the Silicone Study, 241 eyes with severe (> or = C-3) PVR were treated with vitrectomy, randomized to perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) or silicone oil, and followed for 6 months or longer [26].
  • Forty-two patients with known or suspected CAD underwent real-time CCI using octafluoropropane-filled microspheres infusion before and after dipyridamole and thallium-201 injections [27].
  • When BJAB cells were treated with 100 microM Bak BH3 peptides, and ultrasound exposure with ultrasound contrast agents (OPTISON), an increased 35% cell death was confirmed [28].

Gene context of Optison

  • CONCLUSION: Low-intensity ultrasound with echo-enhanced Optison induced efficient gene transfer unlike that with Albunex or Levovist [29].
  • PURPOSE: To compare the effect of a long-acting (16% perfluoropropane [C3F8]) versus a short-acting (air) intraocular gas tamponade on visual outcome and macular hole closure rate after vitrectomy and intravitreal instillation of transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) on the macula [30].
  • A novel therapeutic strategy using E2F decoy ODN with Optison using ultrasound may be useful to inhibit restenosis in clinical practice without a viral vector [31].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and complications of intravitreal injection of perfluoropropane gas for displacement of subretinal hemorrhage (SRH), without the use of tissue plasminogen activator [32].
  • These improvements have allowed eleven CF3-containing compounds to be detected in background air, including CF4 (FC 14), C2F6 (FC 116), CF3Cl (CFC 13), CF3H (HFC 23), CF3Br (Halon 1301), C3F8 (FC 218), CF3CF2Cl (CFC 115), CF3CHF2 (HFC 125), CF3CH3 (HFC 143a), CF3CH2F (HFC 134a), and CF3CFCl2 (CFC 114a) [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Optison

  • BACKGROUND: FS-069 is a second-generation echocardiographic contrast agent composed of perfluoropropane-filled albumin microspheres; it is capable of consistent and reproducible myocardial opacification from a venous injection [34].
  • Segmental perfusion with MCE and WM w ere assessed in real time before and at peak exercise using low mechanical index (0.3) and frame rates of 10 to 20 Hz after 0.3 ml bolus injections of intravenous Optison (Mallinckrodt Inc., San Diego, California) [35].
  • Myocardial contrast echocardiography was performed at baseline using intravenous injections of Optison [36].
  • Using innovative direct microscopy approaches: atomic force microscopy, we demonstrate that TUS exerts bioeffects, which differ from the ones obtained when Optison is used together with TUS [11].
  • Confocal microscopy studies indicate that long-term TUS application localizes the DNA in cell and nucleus regardless of Optison addition [11].


  1. Noninvasive identification of acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion with contrast ultrasound using intravenous perfluoropropane-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin. Porter, T.R., Xie, F., Kricsfeld, A., Kilzer, K. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation and opacification with OPTISON (FS069), a new echocardiographic contrast agent. Results of a phase III Multicenter Trial. Cohen, J.L., Cheirif, J., Segar, D.S., Gillam, L.D., Gottdiener, J.S., Hausnerova, E., Bruns, D.E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Glaucoma after macular hole surgery. Chen, C.J. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Management of submacular hemorrhage with intravitreous tissue plasminogen activator injection and pneumatic displacement. Hassan, A.S., Johnson, M.W., Schneiderman, T.E., Regillo, C.D., Tornambe, P.E., Poliner, L.S., Blodi, B.A., Elner, S.G. Ophthalmology (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Augmentation of filtering blebs with perfluoropropane gas bubble. Lai, J.S., Lam, D.S. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Computerized evaluation of echocardiographic stress tests in patients with poorly visualized endocardium using analysis of color-encoded contrast-enhanced images. Mor-Avi, V., Sugeng, L., Weiss, R.J., Toledo, E., Weinert, L., Bouchard, T., Spencer, K.T., Lang, R.M. European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies induces capillary rupture in mice. Miller, D.L., Quddus, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Safety of dobutamine stress real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography. Tsutsui, J.M., Elhendy, A., Xie, F., O'Leary, E.L., McGrain, A.C., Porter, T.R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparative accuracy of real-time myocardial contrast perfusion imaging and wall motion analysis during dobutamine stress echocardiography for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Elhendy, A., O'Leary, E.L., Xie, F., McGrain, A.C., Anderson, J.R., Porter, T.R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Inhibition of renal fibrosis by gene transfer of inducible Smad7 using ultrasound-microbubble system in rat UUO model. Lan, H.Y., Mu, W., Tomita, N., Huang, X.R., Li, J.H., Zhu, H.J., Morishita, R., Johnson, R.J. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Therapeutic ultrasound-mediated DNA to cell and nucleus: bioeffects revealed by confocal and atomic force microscopy. Duvshani-Eshet, M., Baruch, L., Kesselman, E., Shimoni, E., Machluf, M. Gene Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of dobutamine stress echocardiography with and without real-time perfusion imaging for detection of coronary artery disease. Xie, F., Tsutsui, J.M., McGrain, A.C., Demaria, A., Cotter, B., Becher, H., Lebleu, C., Labovitz, A., Picard, M.H., O'Leary, E.L., Porter, T.R. Am. J. Cardiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or long-acting gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of additional and long-term follow-up. Silicone Study report 11. Abrams, G.W., Azen, S.P., McCuen, B.W., Flynn, H.W., Lai, M.Y., Ryan, S.J. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Accuracy and reproducibility of coronary flow rate assessment by real-time contrast echocardiography: in vitro and in vivo studies. Lafitte, S., Masugata, H., Peters, B., Togni, M., Strachan, M., Yao, B., Kwan, O.L., DeMaria, A.N. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Augmentation of in-vitro clot dissolution by low frequency high-intensity ultrasound combined with antiplatelet and antithrombotic drugs. Atar, S., Luo, H., Birnbaum, Y., Nagai, T., Siegel, R.J. J. Thromb. Thrombolysis (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Myocardial contrast echocardiography yields best accuracy using quantitative analysis of digital data from pulse inversion technique: comparison with second harmonic imaging and harmonic power Doppler during simultaneous dipyridamole stress SPECT studies. von Bibra, H., Bone, D., Niklasson, U., Eurenius, L., Hansen, A. European journal of echocardiography : the journal of the Working Group on Echocardiography of the European Society of Cardiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Microbubble ultrasound improves the efficiency of gene transduction in skeletal muscle in vivo with reduced tissue damage. Lu, Q.L., Liang, H.D., Partridge, T., Blomley, M.J. Gene Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of safe and efficient novel nonviral gene transfer using ultrasound: enhancement of transfection efficiency of naked plasmid DNA in skeletal muscle. Taniyama, Y., Tachibana, K., Hiraoka, K., Aoki, M., Yamamoto, S., Matsumoto, K., Nakamura, T., Ogihara, T., Kaneda, Y., Morishita, R. Gene Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Prediction of the kinetics of disappearance of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluoropropane intraocular gas bubbles. Wong, R.F., Thompson, J.T. Ophthalmology (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. The effects of albumin-coated microbubbles in DNA delivery mediated by therapeutic ultrasound. Duvshani-Eshet, M., Adam, D., Machluf, M. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Treatment of reopened macular hole after vitrectomy by laser and outpatient fluid-gas exchange. Ohana, E., Blumenkranz, M.S. Ophthalmology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Cardiac imaging using Optison. Clark, L.N., Dittrich, H.C. Am. J. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The ocular effects of gases when injected into the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes. Lee, D.A., Wilson, M.R., Yoshizumi, M.O., Hall, M. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Real-time perfusion imaging with low mechanical index pulse inversion Doppler imaging. Porter, T.R., Xie, F., Silver, M., Kricsfeld, D., Oleary, E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Heating and coagulation volume obtained with high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy: comparison of perflutren protein-type A microspheres and MRX-133 in rabbits. Takegami, K., Kaneko, Y., Watanabe, T., Watanabe, S., Maruyama, T., Matsumoto, Y., Nagawa, H. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Postoperative intraocular pressure abnormalities in the Silicone Study. Silicone Study Report 4. Barr, C.C., Lai, M.Y., Lean, J.S., Linton, K.L., Trese, M., Abrams, G., Ryan, S.J., Azen, S.P. Ophthalmology (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Comparison of real-time coherent contrast imaging to dipyridamole thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography for assessment of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular wall motion. Oraby, M.A., Hays, J., Maklady, F.A., El-Hawary, A.A., Yaneza, L.O., Zabalgoitia, M. Am. J. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Intracellular delivery of Bak BH3 peptide by microbubble-enhanced ultrasound. Kinoshita, M., Hynynen, K. Pharm. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Gene transfer with echo-enhanced contrast agents: comparison between Albunex, Optison, and Levovist in mice--initial results. Li, T., Tachibana, K., Kuroki, M., Kuroki, M. Radiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Effects of intraocular bubble duration in the treatment of macular holes by vitrectomy and transforming growth factor-beta 2. Thompson, J.T., Glaser, B.M., Sjaarda, R.N., Murphy, R.P., Hanham, A. Ophthalmology (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Local delivery of E2F decoy oligodeoxynucleotides using ultrasound with microbubble agent (Optison) inhibits intimal hyperplasia after balloon injury in rat carotid artery model. Hashiya, N., Aoki, M., Tachibana, K., Taniyama, Y., Yamasaki, K., Hiraoka, K., Makino, H., Yasufumi, K., Ogihara, T., Morishita, R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Pneumatic displacement of subretinal hemorrhage without tissue plasminogen activator. Ohji, M., Saito, Y., Hayashi, A., Lewis, J.M., Tano, Y. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Improvements in the detection and analysis of CF3-containing compounds in the background atmosphere by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Culbertson, J.A., Prins, J.M., Grimsrud, E.P. Journal of chromatography. A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Hemodynamic characteristics, myocardial kinetics and microvascular rheology of FS-069, a second-generation echocardiographic contrast agent capable of producing myocardial opacification from a venous injection. Skyba, D.M., Camarano, G., Goodman, N.C., Price, R.J., Skalak, T.C., Kaul, S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Real-time assessment of myocardial perfusion and wall motion during bicycle and treadmill exercise echocardiography: comparison with single photon emission computed tomography. Shimoni, S., Zoghbi, W.A., Xie, F., Kricsfeld, D., Iskander, S., Gobar, L., Mikati, I.A., Abukhalil, J., Verani, M.S., O'Leary, E.L., Porter, T.R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. Intravenous myocardial contrast echocardiography predicts recovery of dysynergic myocardium early after acute myocardial infarction. Swinburn, J.M., Lahiri, A., Senior, R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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