The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

CPVL  -  carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like, PSEC0124, UNQ197/PRO223, VCP-like protein, VLP, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of CPVL


Psychiatry related information on CPVL

  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of divalproex (VLP) to prevent episode recurrence in postpartum women with bipolar disorder [6].
  • Of the 12 patients free of symptoms such as itching, burning and dyspareunia, but with clinical vulval lesions, 11 (92%) had histological confirmation of VLP [7].

High impact information on CPVL

  • In contrast to live Ebola virus, VLP treatment of NK cells enhanced cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive targets [8].
  • CONCLUSION: HPV16 VLP-specific IgG responses are present in the plasma of a majority of patients with persistent HPV16 infections and histologically confirmed high-grade lesions but only in a smaller subset of patients with cleared HPV16 infections and either normal cervical histology or low-grade CIN lesions [3].
  • R-type VLP have a characteristic internal radial structure and were observed previously only in hamster cells and in an established bovine cell line [5].
  • Efficient targeting of T cell ligands to lipid rafts and ultimately to VLP is achieved by C-terminal introduction of glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol acceptor sequences, replacing transmembrane and intracellular domains [9].
  • VLP expressing the glycoprotein epitope 33-41 of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the context of H-2D(b) activate and expand naïve, antigen-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes and differentiate them into cytotoxic effector cells [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of CPVL


Biological context of CPVL


Anatomical context of CPVL


Associations of CPVL with chemical compounds

  • In primary macrophages, CPVL is glycosylated with high mannose residues and colocalizes with markers for endoplasmic reticulum, while in MO it is more disperse and less clearly associated with endoplasmic reticulum [16].
  • CPVL can be seen on early latex bead and Candida albicans phagosomes, but it is not retained in the maturing phagosome, unlike MHC class I/II [16].
  • Furthermore, VLP formation by a full-length Gag polyprotein was sensitive to lactacystin, which depletes the levels of free ubiquitin through inhibition of the proteasome [19].
  • Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition [20].
  • In contrast to antibody H33.B6, which displays equal efficiencies in pre- and postattachment neutralization assays, H33.J3 does not block VLP binding to heparin, demonstrating that it interferes with steps subsequent to virus binding [21].

Other interactions of CPVL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CPVL

  • Immune responses were measured by an HPV16 L1 VLP-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and by an HPV16 pseudovirion neutralization assay [22].
  • METHODS: Volunteers were given intramuscular injections with placebo or with 10- or 50-microg doses of HPV16 L1 VLP vaccine given without adjuvant or with alum or MF59 as adjuvants at 0, 1, and 4 months [22].
  • BACKGROUND: Studies in animal models have shown that systemic immunization with a papillomavirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of L1, a major structural viral protein, can confer protection against subsequent experimental challenge with the homologous virus [22].
  • RESULTS: The presence of HPV16 VLP-specific IgGs in the plasma of the patients was found to be associated with the presence of HPV16 DNA in the cervical smear [3].
  • METHODS: Plasma samples from 133 women who had been diagnosed originally with mild to moderate cervical dyskaryosis and enrolled in a prospective non-intervention cohort study conducted in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from 1991 through 1996 were analyzed for the presence of HPV16 VLP-specific IgGs by use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [3].


  1. Immunophenotyping of macrophages in human pulmonary tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Stanton, L.A., Fenhalls, G., Lucas, A., Gough, P., Greaves, D.R., Mahoney, J.A., Helden, P., Gordon, S. International journal of experimental pathology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The possible role of magnesium in protection of premature infants from neurological syndromes and visual impairments and a review of survival of magnesium-exposed premature infants. Caddell, J.L., Graziani, L.J., Wiswell, T.E., Hsieh, H.C., Mansmann, H.C. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunoglobulin G responses against human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles in a prospective nonintervention cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. de Gruijl, T.D., Bontkes, H.J., Walboomers, J.M., Schiller, J.T., Stukart, M.J., Groot, B.S., Chabaud, M.M., Remmink, A.J., Verheijen, R.H., Helmerhorst, T.J., Meijer, C.J., Scheper, R.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Virus-like particles in geometric tubuloreticular structures. Vernon, M.L., Price, P.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. R-type virus-like particles in avian sarcoma virus-induced rat central nervous system tumors. Cloyd, M.W., Burger, P.C., Bigner, D.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevention of postpartum episodes in women with bipolar disorder. Wisner, K.L., Hanusa, B.H., Peindl, K.S., Perel, J.M. Biol. Psychiatry (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Prevalence of vulval lichen planus in a cohort of women with oral lichen planus: an interdisciplinary study. Belfiore, P., Di Fede, O., Cabibi, D., Campisi, G., Amar??, G.S., De Cantis, S., Maresi, E. Br. J. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of natural killer cells in innate protection against lethal ebola virus infection. Warfield, K.L., Perkins, J.G., Swenson, D.L., Deal, E.M., Bosio, C.M., Aman, M.J., Yokoyama, W.M., Young, H.A., Bavari, S. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Direct stimulation of T lymphocytes by immunosomes: virus-like particles decorated with T cell receptor/CD3 ligands plus costimulatory molecules. Derdak, S.V., Kueng, H.J., Leb, V.M., Neunkirchner, A., Schmetterer, K.G., Bielek, E., Majdic, O., Knapp, W., Seed, B., Pickl, W.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Complete inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus Gag myristoylation is necessary for inhibition of particle budding. Morikawa, Y., Hinata, S., Tomoda, H., Goto, T., Nakai, M., Aizawa, C., Tanaka, H., Omura, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Attenuates Antibody Responses against Human Papillomavirus-Like Particles. Ryan, E.P., Malboeuf, C.M., Bernard, M., Rose, R.C., Phipps, R.P. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Cell surface heparan sulfate is a receptor for attachment of envelope protein-free retrovirus-like particles and VSV-G pseudotyped MLV-derived retrovirus vectors to target cells. Guibinga, G.H., Miyanohara, A., Esko, J.D., Friedmann, T. Mol. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Involvement of the matrix and nucleocapsid domains of the bovine leukemia virus Gag polyprotein precursor in viral RNA packaging. Wang, H., Norris, K.M., Mansky, L.M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A therapeutic vaccine for nicotine dependence: preclinical efficacy, and Phase I safety and immunogenicity. Maurer, P., Jennings, G.T., Willers, J., Rohner, F., Lindman, Y., Roubicek, K., Renner, W.A., Müller, P., Bachmann, M.F. Eur. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cloning and characterization of CPVL, a novel serine carboxypeptidase, from human macrophages. Mahoney, J.A., Ntolosi, B., DaSilva, R.P., Gordon, S., McKnight, A.J. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. A vitellogenic-like carboxypeptidase expressed by human macrophages is localized in endoplasmic reticulum and membrane ruffles. Harris, J., Schwinn, N., Mahoney, J.A., Lin, H.H., Shaw, M., Howard, C.J., da Silva, R.P., Gordon, S. International journal of experimental pathology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential uptake and cross-presentation of human papillomavirus virus-like particles by dendritic cells and Langerhans cells. Fausch, S.C., Da Silva, D.M., Kast, W.M. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. B lymphocyte activation by human papillomavirus-like particles directly induces Ig class switch recombination via TLR4-MyD88. Yang, R., Murillo, F.M., Delannoy, M.J., Blosser, R.L., Yutzy, W.H., Uematsu, S., Takeda, K., Akira, S., Viscidi, R.P., Roden, R.B. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. A role for ubiquitin ligase recruitment in retrovirus release. Strack, B., Calistri, A., Accola, M.A., Palu, G., Gottlinger, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. Joyce, J.G., Tung, J.S., Przysiecki, C.T., Cook, J.C., Lehman, E.D., Sands, J.A., Jansen, K.U., Keller, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Further evidence that papillomavirus capsids exist in two distinct conformations. Selinka, H.C., Giroglou, T., Nowak, T., Christensen, N.D., Sapp, M. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Safety and immunogenicity trial in adult volunteers of a human papillomavirus 16 L1 virus-like particle vaccine. Harro, C.D., Pang, Y.Y., Roden, R.B., Hildesheim, A., Wang, Z., Reynolds, M.J., Mast, T.C., Robinson, R., Murphy, B.R., Karron, R.A., Dillner, J., Schiller, J.T., Lowy, D.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities