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Gene Review

SRM  -  spermidine synthase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: PAPT, Putrescine aminopropyltransferase, SPDSY, SPS1, SRML1, ...
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Disease relevance of SRM

  • Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells [1].
  • Methylthiopropylamine, a potent inhibitor of spermidine synthase and its antiproliferative effect on human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells [2].
  • Using a synthetic deoxyoligonucleotide mixture constructed for a tryptic peptide of the bovine enzyme as a probe, cDNA coding for the full-length subunit of spermidine synthase was isolated from a human decidual cDNA library constructed on phage lambda gt11 [3].
  • Only 7% of cohort women worked in the high exposure locations in the plant, compared with 39.6% of men, and no increased risk of cancer mortality was observed among women; but breast cancer mortality was raised (SRM = 2.15) [4].
  • The tumors of patients with and without metastases at the time of resection of the primary tumor contained different (P = 0.0314) concentrations of cells with histochemically demonstrable alpha-naphthylbutyrate esterase in SCM but not in SRM [5].

Psychiatry related information on SRM

  • Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism [6].
  • VO(2) and power output (SRM), aerobic and anaerobic energy contributions, and VO(2) kinetics (mean response time to 63% of the VO(2) observed at 2 km) were determined throughout each TT [7].
  • Pattern (PRM) and spatial recognition (SRM), spatial span (SSP), spatial working memory (SWM), and paired associate learning (PAL) from Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery were performed twice [8].
  • Because of its rigor and specificity, the components of the SRM may serve as a heuristic for thinking about interpersonal feedback in group therapy [9].
  • To summarize, SRM induces a state of relaxation as observed by psychological tests and by effects such as increases in the surface temperature of the hands [10].

High impact information on SRM


Chemical compound and disease context of SRM


Biological context of SRM


Anatomical context of SRM


Associations of SRM with chemical compounds


Other interactions of SRM

  • Three certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves, NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves and BCR CRM 679 white cabbage) were selected for this study, the goal always being to develop a fast procedure that could be robust enough to provide a satisfactory performance for all of them, without any modifications in the conditions applied [24].
  • For this purpose we determined hTERT mRNA concentration and telomerase activity in human normal (RPE-28) and cancer (A549) cell lines as well as in human serum (SRM 1951A) [25].
  • The reliability of the method was proved by analyzing PAH spiked water (simulated rain) and using NIST SRM 1649 ('urban dust') as certified material for particle-bound PAHs in precipitation [26].
  • To check the method, SRM Lyphochek Urine Metal control--Biorad, Seronorm Trace Elements--Nycomed and GWB Human Hair (China) were used [27].
  • Methythioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) functions solely in the polyamine pathway of mammals to remove the methylthioadenosine (MTA) product from both spermidine synthase ( and spermine synthase ( [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SRM

  • Mouse antisera against spermidine synthase revealed only one band, of Mr 35,000, in all purified enzyme preparations and in crude human tissue extracts in immunoblotting [20].
  • Using Southern blot analysis of panels of human podent somatic cell hybrids and chromosomal in situ hybridization, we have been able to assign human spermidine synthase DNA sequences to 1p36 (SRM) and 3p14-->q21 (SRML2) [17].
  • The sample extracts were each analyzed within 1.2 min using a positive ion turbo-ionspray selected reaction monitoring liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (SRM LC/MS) method in which 768 samples were easily analyzed within 22 h (maximum of 820 samples in 24 h) [29].
  • SRM 2392 includes DNA from two lymphoblast cell cultures (CHR and 9947A) and cloned DNA from the CHR HV1 region, which contains a C stretch and is difficult to sequence [30].
  • The results demonstrate that the developed HPLC/ES-SRM methods are powerful approaches for the identification of organoarsenic species in crude sample extracts [31].


  1. Inhibition of spermidine synthase gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta 1 in hepatoma cells. Nishikawa, Y., Kar, S., Wiest, L., Pegg, A.E., Carr, B.I. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Methylthiopropylamine, a potent inhibitor of spermidine synthase and its antiproliferative effect on human lymphoid leukemia Molt 4B cells. Hibasami, H., Sakurai, M., Maekawa, S., Nakashima, K. Anticancer Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Human spermidine synthase: cloning and primary structure. Wahlfors, J., Alhonen, L., Kauppinen, L., Hyvönen, T., Jänne, J., Eloranta, T.O. DNA Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Cancer mortality among workers in chemical plant contaminated with dioxin. Manz, A., Berger, J., Dwyer, J.H., Flesch-Janys, D., Nagel, S., Waltsgott, H. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Heterogeneity and prognostic significance of macrophages in human colonic carcinomas. Luebbers, E.L., Pretlow, T.P., Emancipator, S.N., Boohaker, E.A., Pitts, A.M., Macfadyen, A.J., Bradley, E.L., Pretlow, T.G. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms. Monk, T.H., Petrie, S.R., Hayes, A.J., Kupfer, D.J. Journal of sleep research. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of warm-up on cycle time trial performance. Hajoglou, A., Foster, C., De Koning, J.J., Lucia, A., Kernozek, T.W., Porcari, J.P. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Memory performance profile in occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy suggests working memory dysfunction. Akila, R., M??ller, K., Kaukiainen, A., Sainio, M. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology : official journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Interpersonal feedback: a social relations perspective. Marcus, D.K. International journal of group psychotherapy. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Some psychophysiological aspects of an Oriental method of stress reduction. Ikemi, A., Hayashida, Y. J. UOEH (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Specific inhibition of spermidine synthase from mycobacteria by ethambutol. Pöso, H., Paulin, L., Brander, E. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. The crystal structure of spermidine synthase with a multisubstrate adduct inhibitor. Korolev, S., Ikeguchi, Y., Skarina, T., Beasley, S., Arrowsmith, C., Edwards, A., Joachimiak, A., Pegg, A.E., Savchenko, A. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Transgenic animals as models in the study of the neurobiological role of polyamines. Kauppinen, R.A., Alhonen, L.I. Prog. Neurobiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Reversible inhibition of bacterial growth after specific inhibition of spermidine synthase by dicyclohexylamine. Mattila, T., Honkanen-Buzalski, T., Pösö, H. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Polyamine biosynthetic enzymes as drug targets in parasitic protozoa. Heby, O., Roberts, S.C., Ullman, B. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Platinum drug effects on the expression of genes in the polyamine pathway: time-course and concentration-effect analysis based on Affymetrix gene expression profiling of A2780 ovarian carcinoma cells. Varma, R., Hector, S., Greco, W.R., Clark, K., Hawthorn, L., Porter, C., Pendyala, L. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Mapping of the human spermidine synthase gene (SRM) to 1p36 and a probable pseudogene (SRML2) to region 3p14-->q21. Winqvist, R., Alhonen, L., Grzeschik, K.H., Jänne, J., Eloranta, T.O. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of the human spermidine synthase mRNA translation by its 5'-untranslated region. Kauppinen, L. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Human spermidine synthase gene: structure and chromosomal localization. Myöhänen, S., Kauppinen, L., Wahlfors, J., Alhonen, L., Jänne, J. DNA Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Purification and partial characterization of human polyamine synthases. Kajander, E.O., Kauppinen, L.I., Pajula, R.L., Karkola, K., Eloranta, T.O. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Leishmania donovani Polyamine Biosynthetic Enzyme Overproducers as Tools To Investigate the Mode of Action of Cytotoxic Polyamine Analogs. Roberts, S.C., Jiang, Y., Gasteier, J., Frydman, B., Marton, L.J., Heby, O., Ullman, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Chain-fluorinated polyamines as tumor markers--IV. Comparison of 2-fluoroputrescine and 2,2-difluoroputrescine as substrates of spermidine synthase in vitro and in vivo. Dezeure, F., Sarhan, S., Seiler, N. Int. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. A Monte Carlo model for studying the microheterogeneity of trace elements in reference materials by means of synchrotron microscopic X-ray fluorescence. Kempenaers, L., Janssens, K., Vincze, L., Vekemans, B., Somogyi, A., Drakopoulos, M., Simionovici, A., Adams, F. Anal. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of boron in plant tissues. Resano, M., Briceño, J., Aramendía, M., Belarra, M.A. Anal. Chim. Acta (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Analytical validation of telomerase activity for cancer early detection: TRAP/PCR-CE and hTERT mRNA quantification assay for high-throughput screening of tumor cells. Jakupciak, J.P., Wang, W., Barker, P.E., Srivastava, S., Atha, D.H. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Description and evaluation of a sampling system for long-time monitoring of PAHs wet deposition. Cereceda-Balic, F., Kleist, E., Prast, H., Schlimper, H., Engel, H., Günther, K. Chemosphere (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Determination of some metals in biological samples for monitoring purposes. Spĕvácková, V., Kratzer, K., Cejchanová, M., Benes, B. Cent. Eur. J. Public Health (1997) [Pubmed]
  28. Picomolar transition state analogue inhibitors of human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase and X-ray structure with MT-immucillin-A. Singh, V., Shi, W., Evans, G.B., Tyler, P.C., Furneaux, R.H., Almo, S.C., Schramm, V.L. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well plate format with SRM LC/MS quantitative determination of methotrexate and its major metabolite in human plasma. Steinborner, S., Henion, J. Anal. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. A human mitochondrial DNA standard reference material for quality control in forensic identification, medical diagnosis, and mutation detection. Levin, B.C., Cheng, H., Reeder, D.J. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Development of a liquid chromatography/electrospray selected reaction monitoring method for the determination of organoarsenic species in marine and freshwater samples. Schaeffer, R., Fodor, P., Soeroes, C. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
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