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Gene Review

EPX  -  eosinophil peroxidase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: EPER, EPO, EPP, EPX-PEN, Eosinophil peroxidase
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Disease relevance of EPX


High impact information on EPX


Chemical compound and disease context of EPX

  • The importance of EPX and LTC4/D4 in the characterization of chronic symptomatic rhinitis was also observed [10].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased levels of EPX, MPO and tryptase were observed in stools from collagenous colitis patients, whereas the levels in IBS patients did not differ from healthy controls [11].
  • RESULTS: Median ECP and EPX concentrations in serum (31.4 and 74.8 microg/L vs 15.8 and 24.3 microg/L, respectively), NALF (9.9 and 44. 9 microg/L vs 0 and 2.5 microg/L, respectively) and urine (49.4 vs 16.5 microg/mmol creatinine) were significantly raised in children with bronchial asthma compared with healthy control subjects [12].
  • In this study, to clarify whether eosinophil protein X (EPX) is a marker which is distinct from leukotriene E4 (LTE4), or 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (11DTXB2), we measured the urinary excretion of EPX, LTE4, and 11DTXB2 in 14 asthmatics who were admitted to the hospital with either an acute asthmatic attack or status asthmaticus [13].
  • BACKGROUND: Epirubicin (EPX) has been found to be active in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) patients [14].

Biological context of EPX


Anatomical context of EPX


Associations of EPX with chemical compounds

  • The MCG/EPO complex retained the capacity of the isolated EPO to catalyze the iodination reaction when supplemented with iodide, H2O2, and a protein acceptor and to kill microorganisms when supplemented with H2O2 and a halide (iodide, chloride) [19].
  • Indeed, the MCG/EPO complex had significantly greater iodinating and bactericidal activity than the free enzyme when standardized to equal guaiacol units of peroxidase activity [19].
  • MPO and EPO Compound II is relatively stable and decays gradually within minutes to ground state upon H2O2 exhaustion [21].
  • They also suggest that in biological mixtures where amine groups are abundant, the trapping of EPO-generated HOBr/OBr- as N-bromoamines will serve to effectively "funnel" reactive brominating equivalents to stable ring-brominated forms of tyrosine [22].
  • 3-Bromotyrosine and 3,5-dibromotyrosine are major products of protein oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: potential markers for eosinophil-dependent tissue injury in vivo [22].

Physical interactions of EPX

  • Introduction of purified eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) into the phagosome by binding the enzyme to the surface of the zymosan particles changed the hypermetabolic characteristics of superoxide production in MPO-deficient cells to more closely resemble normal cells, but had no effect on superoxide generation by the normal monocytes [23].
  • Furthermore, both peroxidases bind strongly to collagen fibers, whereas only EPO binds to elastin [24].

Regulatory relationships of EPX


Other interactions of EPX


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of EPX


  1. Human eosinophil peroxidase induces surface alteration, killing, and lysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Borelli, V., Vita, F., Shankar, S., Soranzo, M.R., Banfi, E., Scialino, G., Brochetta, C., Zabucchi, G. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular cloning of the human eosinophil peroxidase. Evidence for the existence of a peroxidase multigene family. Ten, R.M., Pease, L.R., McKean, D.J., Bell, M.P., Gleich, G.J. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. The differential release of eosinophil granule proteins. Studies on patients with acute bacterial and viral infections. Karawajczyk, M., Pauksen, K., Peterson, C.G., Eklund, E., Venge, P. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of rhinovirus-induced common colds on granulocyte activity in allergic rhinitis. Greiff, L., Venge, P., Andersson, M., Enander, I., Linden, M., Myint, S., Persson, C.G. J. Infect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Urinary eosinophil protein X in children with atopic asthma: a useful marker of antiinflammatory treatment. Kristjánsson, S., Strannegård, I.L., Strannegård, O., Peterson, C., Enander, I., Wennergren, G. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Mechanism of membrane damage mediated by human eosinophil cationic protein. Young, J.D., Peterson, C.G., Venge, P., Cohn, Z.A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Transforming growth factor beta abrogates the effects of hematopoietins on eosinophils and induces their apoptosis. Alam, R., Forsythe, P., Stafford, S., Fukuda, Y. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Viricidal effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on human immunodeficiency virus type 1: possible role in heterosexual transmission. Klebanoff, S.J., Coombs, R.W. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Bromide-dependent toxicity of eosinophil peroxidase for endothelium and isolated working rat hearts: a model for eosinophilic endocarditis. Slungaard, A., Mahoney, J.R. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Indirect evidence of nasal inflammation assessed by titration of inflammatory mediators and enumeration of cells in nasal secretions of patients with chronic rhinitis. Knani, J., Campbell, A., Enander, I., Peterson, C.G., Michel, F.B., Bousquet, J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Detection of inflammatory markers in stools from patients with irritable bowel syndrome and collagenous colitis. Lettesjö, H., Hansson, T., Peterson, C., Ung, K.A., Ringström, G., Abrahamsson, H., Simrén, M. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Assessment of eosinophil granule proteins in various body fluids: is there a relation to clinical variables in childhood asthma? Koller, D.Y., Halmerbauer, G., Frischer, T., Roithner, B. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Correlation among urinary eosinophil protein X, leukotriene E4, and 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 in patients with spontaneous asthmatic attack. Oosaki, R., Mizushima, Y., Kawasaki, A., Mita, H., Akiyama, K., Kobayashi, M. Clin. Exp. Allergy (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Feasibility of 21-day continuous infusion of epirubicin in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Berruti, A., Mosca, A., Bitossi, R., Gorzegno, G., Guercio, S., Poggio, M., Tampellini, M., Porpiglia, F., Ostellino, O., Scarpa, R.M., Dogliotti, L. Anticancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The eosinophil peroxidase gene forms a cluster with the genes for myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase on human chromosome 17. Sakamaki, K., Kanda, N., Ueda, T., Aikawa, E., Nagata, S. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Pattern of inheritance in hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency associated with the R569W missense mutation. Nauseef, W.M., Cogley, M., Bock, S., Petrides, P.E. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of the chromosomal gene for human lactoperoxidase. Ueda, T., Sakamaki, K., Kuroki, T., Yano, I., Nagata, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Markers of inflammation and bronchial reactivity in children with asthma, exposed to animal dander in school dust. Lönnkvist, K., Halldén, G., Dahlén, S.E., Enander, I., van Hage-Hamsten, M., Kumlin, M., Hedlin, G. Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Binding of eosinophil peroxidase to mast cell granules with retention of peroxidatic activity. Henderson, W.R., Jong, E.C., Klebanoff, S.J. J. Immunol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Eosinophil peroxidase differs from neutrophil myeloperoxidase in its ability to bind antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies reactive with myeloperoxidase. Sullivan, S., Salapow, M.A., Breen, R., Broide, D.H. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Thiocyanate modulates the catalytic activity of mammalian peroxidases. Tahboub, Y.R., Galijasevic, S., Diamond, M.P., Abu-Soud, H.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. 3-Bromotyrosine and 3,5-dibromotyrosine are major products of protein oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: potential markers for eosinophil-dependent tissue injury in vivo. Wu, W., Chen, Y., d'Avignon, A., Hazen, S.L. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased respiratory burst in myeloperoxidase-deficient monocytes. Locksley, R.M., Wilson, C.B., Klebanoff, S.J. Blood (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Uptake of human eosinophil peroxidase and myeloperoxidase by cells involved in the inflammatory process. Zabucchi, G., Soranzo, M.R., Menegazzi, R., Bertoncin, P., Nardon, E., Patriarca, P. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Induction of myeloperoxidase and nitrotyrosine formation in a human eosinophilic leukemia cell line, EoL-1. Kodama, N., Kambayashi, Y., Kubo, M., Nobukuni, Y., Kimura, S., Nakamura, H., Ogino, K. Cell Biochem. Funct. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibitors of chymotrypsin-like proteases inhibit eosinophil peroxidase release from activated human eosinophils. Matsunaga, Y., Kido, H., Kawaji, K., Kamoshita, K., Katunuma, N., Ogura, T. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Peroxidases inhibit nitric oxide (NO) dependent bronchodilation: development of a model describing NO-peroxidase interactions. Abu-Soud, H.M., Khassawneh, M.Y., Sohn, J.T., Murray, P., Haxhiu, M.A., Hazen, S.L. Biochemistry (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Cell specific markers for eosinophils and neutrophils in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with respiratory conditions and healthy subjects. Metso, T., Venge, P., Haahtela, T., Peterson, C.G., Sevéus, L. Thorax (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The sulfonium ion linkage in myeloperoxidase. Direct spectroscopic detection by isotopic labeling and effect of mutation. Kooter, I.M., Moguilevsky, N., Bollen, A., van der Veen, L.A., Otto, C., Dekker, H.L., Wever, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Eosinophil and neutrophil activity in asthma in a one-year trial with inhaled budesonide. The impact of smoking. Pedersen, B., Dahl, R., Karlström, R., Peterson, C.G., Venge, P. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Human eosinophil peroxidase enhances tumor necrosis factor and hydrogen peroxide release by human monocyte-derived macrophages. Spessotto, P., Dri, P., Bulla, R., Zabucchi, G., Patriarca, P. Eur. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Purification of eosinophil peroxidase and studies of biosynthesis and processing in human marrow cells. Olsson, I., Persson, A.M., Strömberg, K., Winqvist, I., Tai, P.C., Spry, C.J. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  33. Neutrophil and eosinophil granule proteins as markers of response to local prednisolone treatment in distal ulcerative colitis and proctitis. Sangfelt, P., Carlson, M., Thörn, M., Lööf, L., Raab, Y. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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