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MeSH Review

Subarachnoid Space

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Disease relevance of Subarachnoid Space


Psychiatry related information on Subarachnoid Space

  • RESULTS: In patients with idiopathic NPH, the CSF volume was significantly increased in the ventricles and decreased in the superior convexity and medial subarachnoid spaces as compared with patients with other dementias [6].

High impact information on Subarachnoid Space

  • A myelogram disclosed a complete block of the subarachnoid space from levels T11 to L2 [7].
  • Methotrexate administered by Ommaya reservoir, at a dose of 6.25 mg per square meter, rapidly distributed in the subarachnoid space; the peak ventricular concentration of 2 times 10-minus 4 M declined exponentially over 48 hours [8].
  • Assay of biopsied brain cortex of a patient with a deficiency of dihydropteridine reductases showed low concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, and this was reflected in the concentrations of their major metabolites measured in cerebrospinal fluid from lumbar, ventricular, and subarachnoid spaces [9].
  • Intracisternal injection of antisense HO-1 oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) significantly delayed the clearance of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin from the subarachnoid space and aggravated angiographic vasospasm [10].
  • These results demonstrate that bombesin injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord inhibits vagally stimulated and pentagastrin-stimulated gastric secretion in rats [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Subarachnoid Space


Biological context of Subarachnoid Space


Anatomical context of Subarachnoid Space


Associations of Subarachnoid Space with chemical compounds

  • The present report, however, demonstrates that low doses of substance P when coadministered with marginally effective doses of morphine sulfate into the rat subarachnoid space produce a markedly enhanced analgesic response, as monitored by the tail-flick test [27].
  • Since this area is separated by a cleft into right and left regions, the results were interpreted to mean that, through this cleft, PGD2 diffused in the subarachnoid space over the adjacent ventral surface, where it had the effect of promoting sleep [28].
  • PGD(2) infusion into the subarachnoid space of this region increased the extracellular adenosine level more than 2-fold in WT mice but not in the DP-deficient mice [29].
  • To address this hypothesis, we examined the effect of paw formalin injection on release of EAAs and prostaglandin E2-like immunoreactivity (PGE2-LI) from the spinal cord in unanesthetized rats using a dialysis probe placed in the lumbar subarachnoid space [30].
  • High signal in subarachnoid spaces on FLAIR MR images in an adult with propofol sedation [31].

Gene context of Subarachnoid Space

  • TNF-alpha deficiency did not inhibit leukocyte recruitment into the subarachnoid space and did not lead to an increased density of bacteria in brain homogenates [32].
  • CONCLUSION: These data show that the CSF concentration of the CXCR3 ligand CXCL10 is selectively increased in CSF from ON patients, and CXCR3 positive cells are recruited to the subarachnoid space [33].
  • During cortical plate development in PS-1-deficient mice, neurons do not terminate their movement at the outer margin of the cortical plate, but enter the marginal zone and subarachnoid space [34].
  • Here, we demonstrated successful therapeutic angiogenesis using HGF or VEGF gene transfer into the subarachnoid space to improve cerebral hypoperfusion, thus providing a new therapeutic strategy for cerebral ischemic disease [35].
  • IL-6 levels are higher when infection occurs in the subarachnoid space [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Subarachnoid Space


  1. Nitric oxide scavenging by hemoglobin or nitric oxide synthase inhibition by N-nitro-L-arginine induces cortical spreading ischemia when K+ is increased in the subarachnoid space. Dreier, J.P., Körner, K., Ebert, N., Görner, A., Rubin, I., Back, T., Lindauer, U., Wolf, T., Villringer, A., Einhäupl, K.M., Lauritzen, M., Dirnagl, U. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Appearance of Pantopaque on MR images. Mamourian, A.C., Briggs, R.W. Radiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Interleukin-8 in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with meningitis of different etiologies: its possible role as neutrophil chemotactic factor. López-Cortés, L.F., Cruz-Ruiz, M., Gómez-Mateos, J., Viciana-Fernandez, P., Martinez-Marcos, F.J., Pachón, J. J. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Intraspinal alumina injection: the relationship between epileptiform focus, root scarring and chronic pain. Loeser, J.D., Peirce, K.R. Pain (1978) [Pubmed]
  5. Treatment of experimental cryptococcal meningitis and disseminated candidiasis with SCH39304. Perfect, J.R., Wright, K.A., Hobbs, M.M., Durack, D.T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. CSF spaces in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: morphology and volumetry. Kitagaki, H., Mori, E., Ishii, K., Yamaji, S., Hirono, N., Imamura, T. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spinal cord. Routh, A. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. (1980) [Pubmed]
  8. Methotrexate: distribution in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous, ventricular and lumbar injections. Shapiro, W.R., Young, D.F., Mehta, B.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Biogenic amine synthesis defect in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency. Koslow, S.H., Butler, I.J. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Heme oxygenase-1 gene induction as an intrinsic regulation against delayed cerebral vasospasm in rats. Suzuki, H., Kanamaru, K., Tsunoda, H., Inada, H., Kuroki, M., Sun, H., Waga, S., Tanaka, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Intrathecal injection of bombesin inhibits gastric acid secretion in the rat. Yang, H., Cuttitta, F., Raybould, H., Taché, Y. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Delayed CT metrizamide enhancement of syringomyelia secondary to tumor. Kan, S., Fox, A.J., Viñuela, F., Barnett, H.J., Peerless, S.J. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. The subarachnoid spaces in craniosynostosis. Chadduck, W.M., Chadduck, J.B., Boop, F.A. Neurosurgery (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Toxicity of metrizamide and meglumine iocarmate in the spinal subarachnoid space. An experimental study in rats with special reference to long-term effects. Skalpe, I.O., Torvik, A. Investigative radiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Contribution to the background of Mollaret's meningitis. Szabó, M., Majtényi, C., Guseo, A. Acta Neuropathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Titanium aneurysm clips: Part I--Mechanical, radiological, and biocompatibility testing. Lawton, M.T., Ho, J.C., Bichard, W.D., Coons, S.W., Zabramski, J.M., Spetzler, R.F. Neurosurgery (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. The effect of intravenous lidoflazine on serotonin-induced cerebral vascular contraction--an in vivo study. Rosenwasser, R.H., Tuma, R.F., Buchheit, W.A. Stroke (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene therapy for preventing neuronal death using hepatocyte growth factor: in vivo gene transfer of HGF to subarachnoid space prevents delayed neuronal death in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons. Hayashi, K., Morishita, R., Nakagami, H., Yoshimura, S., Hara, A., Matsumoto, K., Nakamura, T., Ogihara, T., Kaneda, Y., Sakai, N. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Dominant localization of adenosine deaminase in leptomeninges and involvement of the enzyme in sleep. Okada, T., Mochizuki, T., Huang, Z.L., Eguchi, N., Sugita, Y., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Thermoregulatory behaviour induced by intrathecal injection of substance P in the rat. Dib, B. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies on the cardiovascular effects produced by the spinal action of substance P in the rat. Couture, R., Hasséssian, H., Gupta, A. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Implantation of AtT-20 or genetically modified AtT-20/hENK cells in mouse spinal cord induced antinociception and opioid tolerance. Wu, H.H., Wilcox, G.L., McLoon, S.C. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence for intrathecal synthesis of alternative pathway complement activation proteins in experimental meningitis. Stahel, P.F., Frei, K., Fontana, A., Eugster, H.P., Ault, B.H., Barnum, S.R. Am. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Golli-induced paralysis: a study in anergy and disease. Clark, L., Otvos, L., Stein, P.L., Zhang, X.M., Skorupa, A.F., Lesh, G.E., McMorris, F.A., Heber-Katz, E. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Ex vivo gene delivery of platelet-derived growth factor increases 0-2A progenitors in adult rat spinal cord. Ijichi, A., Noel, F., Sakuma, S., Weil, M.M., Tofilon, P.J. Gene Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Motion of the cerebellar tonsils in Chiari type I malformation studied by cine phase-contrast MRI. Pujol, J., Roig, C., Capdevila, A., Pou, A., Martí-Vilalta, J.L., Kulisevsky, J., Escartín, A., Zannoli, G. Neurology (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Substance P markedly potentiates the antinociceptive effects of morphine sulfate administered at the spinal level. Kream, R.M., Kato, T., Shimonaka, H., Marchand, J.E., Wurm, W.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Prostaglandin D2-sensitive, sleep-promoting zone defined in the ventral surface of the rostral basal forebrain. Matsumura, H., Nakajima, T., Osaka, T., Satoh, S., Kawase, K., Kubo, E., Kantha, S.S., Kasahara, K., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Dominant localization of prostaglandin D receptors on arachnoid trabecular cells in mouse basal forebrain and their involvement in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Mizoguchi, A., Eguchi, N., Kimura, K., Kiyohara, Y., Qu, W.M., Huang, Z.L., Mochizuki, T., Lazarus, M., Kobayashi, T., Kaneko, T., Narumiya, S., Urade, Y., Hayaishi, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Cyclooxygenase inhibition and the spinal release of prostaglandin E2 and amino acids evoked by paw formalin injection: a microdialysis study in unanesthetized rats. Malmberg, A.B., Yaksh, T.L. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. High signal in subarachnoid spaces on FLAIR MR images in an adult with propofol sedation. Stoner, T., Braff, S., Khoshyomn, S. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of deficiency of tumor necrosis factor alpha or both of its receptors on Streptococcus pneumoniae central nervous system infection and peritonitis. Wellmer, A., Gerber, J., Ragheb, J., Zysk, G., Kunst, T., Smirnov, A., Brück, W., Nau, R. Infect. Immun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Optic neuritis: chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands. Sørensen, T.L., Roed, H., Sellebjerg, F. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. The function of presenilin-1 in amyloid beta-peptide generation and brain development. Saftig, P., Hartmann, D., De Strooper, B. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Gene transfer of hepatocyte growth factor to subarachnoid space in cerebral hypoperfusion model. Yoshimura, S., Morishita, R., Hayashi, K., Kokuzawa, J., Aoki, M., Matsumoto, K., Nakamura, T., Ogihara, T., Sakai, N., Kaneda, Y. Hypertension (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Interleukin levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with neurocysticercosis. Aguilar-Rebolledo, F., Cedillo-Rivera, R., Llaguno-Violante, P., Torres-López, J., Muñoz-Hernandez, O., Enciso-Moreno, J.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Experimental axonal injury triggers interleukin-6 mRNA, protein synthesis and release into cerebrospinal fluid. Hans, V.H., Kossmann, T., Lenzlinger, P.M., Probstmeier, R., Imhof, H.G., Trentz, O., Morganti-Kossmann, M.C. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Epidural block: myelographic evaluation with a single-puncture technique using metrizamide. Kelly, W.M., Badami, P., Dillon, W. Radiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Adrenal medullary implants in the rat spinal cord reduce nociception in a chronic pain model. Sagen, J., Wang, H., Pappas, G.D. Pain (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. Characterization of the hyperalgesic effect induced by intrathecal injection of substance P. Matsumura, H., Sakurada, T., Hara, A., Sakurada, S., Kisara, K. Neuropharmacology (1985) [Pubmed]
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