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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Refrigeration


High impact information on Refrigeration


Biological context of Refrigeration


Anatomical context of Refrigeration


Associations of Refrigeration with chemical compounds

  • Reconstituted serum with added glycerol maintained maximum activity before refrigeration during either storage for 30 days or on repeated freezing and thawing [17].
  • The refrigeration unit, together with a heat exchanger and a recirculating pump, cools the modulator to about -30 degrees C. The modulator tube is silica-lined stainless steel with an internal film of dimethylpolysiloxane [18].
  • We describe a simple radioimmunoassay of plasma cortisol, which can be performed in 3 h and which requires no purification, heating, or refrigeration steps [19].
  • Red cells anticoagulated with citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) or a commercial preservative solution containing adenine, sodium chloride, and mannitol (ADSOL) and stored in heat-sealed segments of plastic tubing were tested for antigen stability after refrigeration at 4 degrees C for up to 56 days [20].
  • In addition, compared to amphotericin B as an antifungal genitourinary irrigant, miconazole is prepared more easily, requires less labor and preparation time, and does not require refrigeration or protection from light [21].

Gene context of Refrigeration

  • Specimens for insulin testing require freezing or refrigeration, and specimens for gastrin testing should be stored at -70 degrees C for optimal results [22].
  • These gonadotropins are stable in blood spots for at least a year under refrigeration; LH for at least 8 weeks and FSH 6 weeks at 22 degrees C; and both hormones for a week at 37 degrees C. These methods thus allow self-sampling, serial sampling, and mailing of specimens [23].
  • We conclude that the Becton-Dickinson Urine Culture Kit maintains a stable bacterial population in urine for up to 24 h as reliably as refrigeration [24].
  • RESULTS: The data indicate that treatment of sperm with refrigeration can improve fertilization and PRs during IVF in selected patients previously shown to have an improved SPA value with the treatment [25].
  • Among the potential explanations, the most plausible are the high percentage of dialysis patients treated with Epo, the almost exclusive subcutaneous administration, the larger market distribution of the epoietin-alpha brand, the eventual disruption of the cold chain and the setting-up of a systematic national survey [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Refrigeration


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  2. Transport and storage of vaccines in Hungary: the first cold chain monitor study in Europe. Lugosi, L., Battersby, A. Bull. World Health Organ. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Evolution of carbohydrate fraction in carbonated fermented milks as affected by beta-galactosidase activity of starter strains. Guetmonde, M., Nieves, C., Vinderola, G., Reinheimer, J., de los Reyes-Gavilan, C.G. J. Dairy Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour. Gülmezoglu, A.M., Villar, J., Ngoc, N.T., Piaggio, G., Carroli, G., Adetoro, L., Abdel-Aleem, H., Cheng, L., Hofmeyr, G., Lumbiganon, P., Unger, C., Prendiville, W., Pinol, A., Elbourne, D., El-Refaey, H., Schulz, K. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Dry instant blood typing plate for bedside use. Blakeley, D., Tolliday, B., Colaco, C., Roser, B. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Clinical phase I-II and pharmacokinetic study of high-dose thymidine given by continuous intravenous infusion. Chiuten, D.F., Wiernik, P.H., Zaharko, D.S., Edwards, L. Cancer Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Serotonergic measures in suicide brain: the concentration of 5-HIAA, HVA, and tryptophan in frontal cortex of suicide victims. Ohmori, T., Arora, R.C., Meltzer, H.Y. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of storage time and temperature on folacin and vitamin C levels in term and preterm human milk. Bank, M.R., Kirksey, A., West, K., Giacoia, G. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. A benefit-risk assessment of misoprostol for cervical ripening and labour induction. Wing, D.A. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Impact of a major hurricane on surgical services in a university hospital. Norcross, E.D., Elliott, B.M., Adams, D.B., Crawford, F.A. The American surgeon. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Effect of dietary fish oil substitution with linseed oil on the performance, tissue fatty acid profile, metabolism, and oxidative stability of Atlantic salmon. Menoyo, D., López-Bote, C.J., Obach, A., Bautista, J.M. J. Anim. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Stability of ceftriaxone sodium in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Nahata, M.C. DICP : the annals of pharmacotherapy. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Stability of common analytes in urine refrigerated for 24 h before automated analysis by test strips. Froom, P., Bieganiec, B., Ehrenrich, Z., Barak, M. Clin. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Ethanol fixation of sputum sediments for DNA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Williams, D.L., Gillis, T.P., Dupree, W.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Preliminary report: immunoperoxidase-linked human placental lactogen as a histopathologic index of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Altshuler, G., De Bault, L.E. Pediatric pathology / affiliated with the International Paediatric Pathology Association. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Preventing bacterial contamination and proliferation during the harvest, storage, and feeding of fresh bovine colostrum. Stewart, S., Godden, S., Bey, R., Rapnicki, P., Fetrow, J., Farnsworth, R., Scanlon, M., Arnold, Y., Clow, L., Mueller, K., Ferrouillet, C. J. Dairy Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Protective effect of glycerol against the increase in alkaline phosphatase activity of lyophilized quality-control serum. Tanishima, K., Minamikawa, Y., Yokogawa, N., Takeshita, M. Clin. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  18. Electrically heated, air-cooled thermal modulator and at-column heating for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Libardoni, M., Waite, J.H., Sacks, R. Anal. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Simple radioimmunoassay of cortisol in diluted samples of human plasma. Connolly, T.M., Vecsei, P. Clin. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. Stability of red cell antigens during prolonged storage in citrate-phosphate-dextrose and a new preservative solution. Snyder, E.L., Hezzey, A., Joyner, R., Davisson, W., Buchholz, D.H. Transfusion (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Miconazole: a cost-effective antifungal genitourinary irrigant. Wise, G.J., Goldman, W.M., Goldberg, P.E., Rothenberg, R.G. J. Urol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of duration and temperature of storage on serum analyte stability: examination of 14 selected radioimmunoassay procedures. Kubasik, N.P., Ricotta, M., Hunter, T., Sine, H.E. Clin. Chem. (1982) [Pubmed]
  23. Measurement of gonadotropins in dried blood spots. Worthman, C.M., Stallings, J.F. Clin. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of preservative fluid for urine collected for culture. Lauer, B.A., Reller, L.B., Mirrett, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. An evaluation of various treatments to increase sperm penetration capacity for potential use in an in vitro fertilization program. Carrell, D.T., Bradshaw, W.S., Jones, K.P., Middleton, R.G., Peterson, C.M., Urry, R.L. Fertil. Steril. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. High prevalence in Switzerland of pure red-cell aplasia due to anti-erythropoietin antibodies in chronic dialysis patients: report of five cases. Schönholzer, C., Keusch, G., Nigg, L., Robert, D., Wauters, J.P. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Stabilization of chimeric BR96-doxorubicin immunoconjugate. Barbour, N.P., Paborji, M., Alexander, T.C., Coppola, W.P., Bogardus, J.B. Pharm. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Determination of background serum density for lipoprotein ultracentrifugation. Jensen, G.L., Smith, S.C. Lipids (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Possible effect of refrigeration of warfarin on the international normalized ratio. Sharp, R.P., Havrda, D.E. Pharmacotherapy (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Prolonged stability of antimicrobial activity in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Dooley, D.P., Tyler, J.R., Wortham, W.G., Harrison, L.S., Starnes, W.F., Collins, G.R., Ozuna, I.S., Violet, P.L., Ward, J.A. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of refrigeration on bactericidal activity of four preserved multiple-dose injectable drug products. Lehmann, C.R. American journal of hospital pharmacy. (1977) [Pubmed]
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