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Chemical Compound Review

Phemerol     benzyl-dimethyl-[2-[2-[4- (2,4,4...

Synonyms: Inactisol, Sanizol, Solamin, Phemethryn, benzethonium, ...
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Disease relevance of benzethonium


High impact information on benzethonium


Chemical compound and disease context of benzethonium


Biological context of benzethonium


Anatomical context of benzethonium

  • Thus, Pz-peptidase B may have been overlooked in previous studies employing extraction of spermatozoa with Hyamine 2389 [17].
  • When applied directly to the D. melanogaster heart, in the absence of hemolymph, bztc reduced the frequency of spontaneous contractions in larval, pupal, and adult hearts [16].
  • Hyamine and SDS-soluble extracts of rat testis tissue contained an additional group of argentophilic polypeptides of lower molecular weight (115, 94, 36, 23, and 21 kDa) [18].
  • The outer acrosome membrane and acrosomal material extracted by Hyamine contained about 35-40% of the total acrosin activity, and three quarters of it was soluble [19].
  • Practically all the vitamin A was found in the fractions obtained by treatment with hypotonic MgCl2 (acrosomal region) and/or with hyamine and dithiothreitol (plasma membrane) [20].

Associations of benzethonium with other chemical compounds

  • Values for an aqueous pH 7 chloroform system increased from zero in the absence of additives to 2.28, 1.86, 1.82, and 1.70 for equimolar amounts of benzalkonium, tetraheptylammonium, benzethonium, and cetalkonium chlorides, respectively [21].
  • After a single episode of hand hygiene, alcohol/silver iodide, CHG, triclosan, and benzethonium chloride were similar to the controls in reduction of MS2, but, in general, handwipes and alcohol-based handrubs showed significantly lower efficacy [22].
  • Excreted radioactivity (mu Ci/min) was measured by bubbling the expired air into an apparatus containing 3 mEq hyamine to trap CO2 from a 20-L Douglas-bag [23].
  • In this study, a capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of cationic surfactants, benzethonium and cetylpyridinium ions, which are commonly used as preservatives in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products [24].
  • Using cytotoxicity as a guide to fractionation, one novel acetogenin, annoreticuin-9-one [3], and four known cytotoxic acetogenins, squamone [4], solamin [5], annomonicin [6] and rolliniastatin 2 [7], were isolated from active extracts of the leaves of the Formosan plant Annona reticulata [25].

Gene context of benzethonium

  • Both proteinases are inhibited by traditional inhibitors of cysteine proteinases and E-64, but leupeptin turned to be more effective inhibitor of cathepsin L (Ki = 2.4 nM) than of cathepsin H (Ki = 9.2 microM), the latter enzyme being sensitive to puromycin and benzethonium chloride as well.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[26]
  • Urease B gene of Helicobacter pylori was detected in 50% of the wash-out samples from the biopsy-suction channel of a fiberscope after manual Hyamine washing by nested polymerase chain reaction, and bacterial culture revealed viable Helicobacter pylori in 19% [1].
  • The use of benzethonium chloride as an internal standard and thioglycerol as a FAB matrix allowed the direct and specific determination of the BAK content (0.004-0.020%) in commercial hard contact lens solutions through the individual assay of the two alkyl homologues [27].
  • The increase of the total acrosin activity during the Hyamine treatment indicates that acrosin is partly in an inactive form. due either to steric hindrance, inhibitor complex of existence of a proacrosin [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of benzethonium


  1. Helicobacter pylori may be transmitted through gastrofiberscope even after manual Hyamine washing. Katoh, M., Saito, D., Noda, T., Yoshida, S., Oguro, Y., Yazaki, Y., Sugimura, T., Terada, M. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Inhibitory effect of benzethonium and zinc chloride mouthrinses on human dental plaque and gingivitis. Compton, F.H., Beagrie, G.S. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Vulvar dermatitis and fissures--irritant dermatitis from methyl benzethonium chloride. Maibach, H.I., Mathias, C.T. Contact Derm. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Interpretation of ultrastructural changes in Cladophora glomerata resulting from hyamine toxicity. Wong, S.L., Wainwright, J.F. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparative stabilities of glutaraldehyde & heat inactivated pertussis vaccine components of adsorbed DPT vaccine with different preservatives. Gupta, R.K., Saxena, S.N., Sharma, S.B., Ahuja, S. Indian J. Med. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein decreases recovery of total protein in urine when trichloroacetic acid is used to precipitate the proteins. Beilby, J.P., O'Leary, B.A. Clin. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. A micro-method for measuring total protein in cerebrospinal fluid by using benzethonium chloride in microtiter plate wells. Luxton, R.W., Patel, P., Keir, G., Thompson, E.J. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Properties of binding sites for chloroquine in liver lysosomal membranes. Colombo, M.I., Bertini, F. J. Cell. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Measurement of exogenous carbohydrate oxidation: a comparison of [U-14C]glucose and [U-13C]glucose tracers. Moseley, L., Jentjens, R.L., Waring, R.H., Harris, R.M., Harding, L.K., Jeukendrup, A.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Innervation of dromyosuppressin (DMS) immunoreactive processes and effect of DMS and benzethonium chloride on the Phormia regina (Meigen) crop. Richer, S., Stoffolano, J.G., Yin, C.M., Nichols, R. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of an alcohol-based healthcare hand rub containing synergistic combination of farnesol and benzethonium chloride. Shintre, M.S., Gaonkar, T.A., Modak, S.M. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Ocular hydrofluoric acid burns: animal model, mechanism of injury and therapy. McCulley, J.P. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of intrathecal saline and ketamine with and without preservative on the spinal nerve roots of monkeys. Brock-Utne, J.G., Mankowitz, E., Kallichurum, S., Downing, J.W. S. Afr. Med. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Methemoglobinemia secondary to cleaning solution ingestion. Freeman, L., Wolford, R.W. The Journal of emergency medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Synergistic inhibition of muscarinic signaling by ketamine stereoisomers and the preservative benzethonium chloride. Durieux, M.E., Nietgen, G.W. Anesthesiology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. A nonpeptide provides insight into mechanisms that regulate Drosophila melanogaster heart contractions. Mispelon, M., Thakur, K., Chinn, L., Owen, R., Nichols, R. Peptides (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and preliminary characterization of two distinct bovine seminal Pz-peptidases. Lessley, B.A., Garner, D.L. Biol. Reprod. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Extractions reveal specific argentophilic proteins in rat and bull sperm heads. Yagi, A., Paranko, J. Anat. Rec. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Distribution and removal of the acrosin of bull spermatozoa. Multamäki, S., Suominen, J. Int. J. Fertil. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Participation of vitamin A in the maturation of rabbit spermatozoa. Velázquez, A., Rosado, A., Rosado, A. Int. J. Fertil. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhancement of ampicillin partition behavior. Hurwitz, A.R., Carney, C.F. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative efficacy of hand hygiene agents in the reduction of bacteria and viruses. Sickbert-Bennett, E.E., Weber, D.J., Gergen-Teague, M.F., Sobsey, M.D., Samsa, G.P., Rutala, W.A. American journal of infection control. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Tissue uptake and oxidation of disodium sebacate in man. Mingrone, G., Greco, A.V., Bertuzzi, A., Arcieri-Mastromattei, E., Tacchino, R.M., Marino, F., Finotti, E., Castagneto, M. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Determination of cationic surfactants as the preservatives in an oral solution and a cosmetic product by capillary electrophoresis. Oztekin, N., Erim, F.B. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Studies on the acetogenins of Formosan annonaceous plants. II. Cytotoxic acetogenins from Annona reticulata. Chang, F.R., Wu, Y.C., Duh, C.Y., Wang, S.K. J. Nat. Prod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Human and bovine brain cathepsin L and cathepsin H: purification, physico-chemical properties, and specificity. Azaryan, A., Galoyan, A. Neurochem. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Determination of benzalkonium chloride in contact lens solutions by positive-ion fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. Pinzauti, S., Bambagiotti-Alberti, M., Moneti, G., La Porta, E., Coran, S.A., Vincieri, F.F., Gratteri, P. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Mini-dose (1-microCi) 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. Raju, G.S., Smith, M.J., Morton, D., Bardhan, K.D. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of concentration and biochemical assay on the accuracy of urine dipsticks in hypertensive pregnancies. Waugh, J., Bell, S.C., Kilby, M., Lambert, P., Shennan, A., Halligan, A. Hypertension in pregnancy : official journal of the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Variability of standard clinical protein assays in the analysis of a model urine solution of fragmented albumin. Eppel, G.A., Nagy, S., Jenkins, M.A., Tudball, R.N., Daskalakis, M., Balazs, N.D., Comper, W.D. Clin. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained. von Woedtke, T., Schlüter, B., Pflegel, P., Lindequist, U., Jülich, W.D. Die Pharmazie. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of refrigeration on bactericidal activity of four preserved multiple-dose injectable drug products. Lehmann, C.R. American journal of hospital pharmacy. (1977) [Pubmed]
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