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Gene Review

LUM  -  lumican

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: KSPG lumican, Keratan sulfate proteoglycan lumican, LDC, Lumican, SLRR2D
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Disease relevance of LUM


Psychiatry related information on LUM


High impact information on LUM

  • The thickness and density of tenascin, lumican, and procollagen III in the reticular basement membrane (RBM) were quantified immunohistochemically by confocal microscopy [7].
  • Treating asthmatics with anti-IL-5 antibody, which specifically decreased airway eosinophil numbers, significantly reduced the expression of tenascin, lumican, and procollagen III in the bronchial mucosal RBM when compared with placebo [7].
  • Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma [8].
  • The small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican was identified from a human placenta cDNA library by the expression cloning method as a gene product that interacts with membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MT1-MMP) [9].
  • The expression levels of p21 in HT1080/Lum were proportional to the concentration of secreted lumican and showed reverse corelation with colony formation in soft agar [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of LUM


Biological context of LUM


Anatomical context of LUM

  • Stable expression of lumican in HeLa cells induced expression of p21 and reduction of colony formation in soft agar, which were both abolished by the expression of MT1-MMP [9].
  • To evaluate the expression of lumican and decorin, the major proteoglycans of the adult corneal stroma, during the acquisition of corneal transparency in developing chick embryos [12].
  • RESULTS: Lumican was present in the human sclera as a 70- to 80-kDa core protein with short unsulfated lactosaminoglycan side chains [13].
  • PURPOSE: Lumican is a keratan sulfate proteoglycan originally identified in cornea, but present in a variety of connective tissues where it presumably regulates collagen fibril formation and organization [13].
  • In contrast, reporter assays carried out in human fetal lung fibroblasts, where lumican expression is deplete, revealed the presence of a repressor element located between 384 and 598 bp upstream of the transcription start site [14].

Associations of LUM with chemical compounds

  • Lumican protein from bovine cornea and recombinant lumican core protein fused to glutathione S-transferase was shown to be cleaved at multiple sites by recombinant MT1-MMP [9].
  • In the adult cartilage lumican exists predominantly in a glycoprotein form lacking keratan sulfate, whereas the juvenile form of the molecule is a proteoglycan [15].
  • Decorin and lumican were extracted from bovine corneal stroma with either 0.7 M NaCl or 4 M guanidine HCl and purified by DEAE and Sepharose CL-4B chromatography [16].
  • Histological composition was assessed in sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and the expression of lumican and decorin was assessed by immunohistochemistry; both were quantified by semi-quantitative scoring [17].
  • Non-intrusive, non-contacting frequency-domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR or PTR) and frequency-domain luminescence (FD-LUM or LUM) have been used with 659- and 830-nm laser sources to assess the pits and fissures on the occlusal surfaces of human teeth [18].

Other interactions of LUM

  • Cleavage of lumican by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 abrogates this proteoglycan-mediated suppression of tumor cell colony formation in soft agar [9].
  • Furthermore, the degree of PG immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with airway responsiveness in the asthmatics (lumican; r = -0.77, p < 0.05; biglycan: r = -0.76, p < 0.05; versican: r = -0.74, p = 0.06) [19].
  • The results of these studies suggest that decorin and lumican expression are independently regulated during the period of acquisition of corneal transparency [12].
  • Further characterization of the >200-kDa lumican-immunopurified complex indicated that aggrecan (the cartilage proteoglycan) was covalently associated with lumican [13].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reducible and nonreducible lumican-aggrecan interactions occur in the scleral extracellular matrix and result in the formation of high-molecular-weight complexes that increase with age [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LUM


  1. The small leucine-rich proteoglycan lumican inhibits melanoma progression. Vuillermoz, B., Khoruzhenko, A., D'Onofrio, M.F., Ramont, L., Venteo, L., Perreau, C., Antonicelli, F., Maquart, F.X., Wegrowski, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Pancreatic tumor cells influence the composition of the extracellular matrix. Köninger, J., Giese, T., di Mola, F.F., Wente, M.N., Esposito, I., Bachem, M.G., Giese, N.A., Büchler, M.W., Friess, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Joint capsule matrix turnover in a rabbit model of chronic joint contractures: Correlation with human contractures. Hildebrand, K.A., Zhang, M., Hart, D.A. J. Orthop. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Lumican and decorin are differentially expressed in human breast carcinoma. Leygue, E., Snell, L., Dotzlaw, H., Troup, S., Hiller-Hitchcock, T., Murphy, L.C., Roughley, P.J., Watson, P.H. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduced expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans, lumican, and decorin is associated with poor outcome in node-negative invasive breast cancer. Troup, S., Njue, C., Kliewer, E.V., Parisien, M., Roskelley, C., Chakravarti, S., Roughley, P.J., Murphy, L.C., Watson, P.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The Quality Assurance Project: introducing quality improvement to primary health care in less developed countries. Nicholas, D.D., Heiby, J.R., Hatzell, T.A. Quality assurance in health care : the official journal of the International Society for Quality Assurance in Health Care / ISQA. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Anti-IL-5 treatment reduces deposition of ECM proteins in the bronchial subepithelial basement membrane of mild atopic asthmatics. Flood-Page, P., Menzies-Gow, A., Phipps, S., Ying, S., Wangoo, A., Ludwig, M.S., Barnes, N., Robinson, D., Kay, A.B. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model. Hagedorn, M., Javerzat, S., Gilges, D., Meyre, A., de Lafarge, B., Eichmann, A., Bikfalvi, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Cleavage of lumican by membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-1 abrogates this proteoglycan-mediated suppression of tumor cell colony formation in soft agar. Li, Y., Aoki, T., Mori, Y., Ahmad, M., Miyamori, H., Takino, T., Sato, H. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of lumican in human colorectal cancer cells. Lu, Y.P., Ishiwata, T., Kawahara, K., Watanabe, M., Naito, Z., Moriyama, Y., Sugisaki, Y., Asano, G. Pathol. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Lumican, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan substituted with keratan sulfate chains is expressed and secreted by human melanoma cells and not normal melanocytes. Sifaki, M., Assouti, M., Nikitovic, D., Krasagakis, K., Karamanos, N.K., Tzanakakis, G.N. IUBMB Life (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular polymorphism of lumican during corneal development. Cornuet, P.K., Blochberger, T.C., Hassell, J.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of lumican with aggrecan in the aging human sclera. Dunlevy, J.R., Rada, J.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Analysis of the human lumican gene promoter. Grover, J., Liu, C.Y., Kao, W.W., Roughley, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. The human lumican gene. Organization, chromosomal location, and expression in articular cartilage. Grover, J., Chen, X.N., Korenberg, J.R., Roughley, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of corneal collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro by corneal proteoglycan (lumican and decorin) core proteins. Rada, J.A., Cornuet, P.K., Hassell, J.R. Exp. Eye Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Mammographic density is related to stroma and stromal proteoglycan expression. Alowami, S., Troup, S., Al-Haddad, S., Kirkpatrick, I., Watson, P.H. Breast Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Diagnosis of pit and fissure caries using frequency-domain infrared photothermal radiometry and modulated laser luminescence. Jeon, R.J., Han, C., Mandelis, A., Sanchez, V., Abrams, S.H. Caries Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhanced proteoglycan deposition in the airway wall of atopic asthmatics. Huang, J., Olivenstein, R., Taha, R., Hamid, Q., Ludwig, M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Lumican is down-regulated in cells expressing endoglin. Evidence for an inverse correlationship between Endoglin and Lumican expression. Botella, L.M., Sanz-Rodriguez, F., Sanchez-Elsner, T., Langa, C., Ramirez, J.R., Vary, C., Roughley, P.J., Bernabeu, C. Matrix Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Primary structure of human lumican (keratan sulfate proteoglycan) and localization of the gene (LUM) to chromosome 12q21.3-q22. Chakravarti, S., Stallings, R.L., SundarRaj, N., Cornuet, P.K., Hassell, J.R. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
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