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Chemical Compound Review

Betadine     1-ethenylpyrrolidin-2-one; molecular iodine

Synonyms: Povadyne, Bridine, Disphex, Isodine, PVP-Iodine, ...
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Disease relevance of Povidone


Psychiatry related information on Povidone

  • In nasal carriers of S. aureus, PVP-I resulted in 100% risk reduction of bacteraemia and exit site infection (P < 0.05) and 70% risk reduction of catheter tip infections (P < 0.05) [6].
  • Percentages of fluorescent cells positive for HCMV immediate early and early antigens in cultures inoculated with AD 169 treated with PVP-I at various concentrations and reaction times were compared with the number of fluorescent cells in the controls inoculated with the virus alone [7].

High impact information on Povidone

  • In this study, we investigated the serum iodine compounds from a severely burned patient with normal initial thyroid function tests who was swabbed with Betadine ointment and received daily therapeutic baths in Betadine [8].
  • Markedly elevated serum PBI levels occur after therapy with povidone-iodine (Betadine), an iodine-polyvinylpyrrolidone iodophor [8].
  • BACKGROUND: Povidone-iodine (PI) (Betadine, Purdue Fredrick Co., Norwalk, CT) is used during pancreas transplantation to provide duodenal decontamination without any intestinal complications [9].
  • The essentials were the use of intravenous peri- and postoperative antimicrobials, rigid adherence to classical aseptic technique, liberal use of topical antiseptic (Betadine), and avoidance of haematomas [10].
  • Effects of community composition and growth rate on aquifer biofilm bacteria and their susceptibility to betadine disinfection [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Povidone


Biological context of Povidone

  • CONCLUSIONS: In a large proportion of patients, isolation of viable organisms from excised skin specimens after disinfection with 10% PVP-I suggests that contamination of the epidural space by the skin flora may be a potential mechanism of epidural infection associated with epidural block [3].
  • When the micromethod was carried out at 20 degrees C, 10.7% (54/504) of the strains were resistant to the PVP-I skin disinfectant (dilution 1:10) and 1.6% (8/504) were resistant to the handwashing formulations (dilution 1:3) after 1 min exposure [17].
  • PVP-I is a safe antiseptic and does not appear to impede wound healing or induce resistant bacteria [18].
  • In the present study, we have evaluated thyroid function in neonates at delivery and in their mothers who used vaginal povidone-iodine (PVP-I) during the last trimester of pregnancy [19].
  • The favorable virucidal efficiency together with the preferred apoptotic route of cell death makes the liposomal PVP-I formulation a promising candidate for topical use in prevention and treatment of infections of the eye and the upper respiratory tract [20].

Anatomical context of Povidone

  • This is a preliminary study evaluating diluted solutions of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) as urinary bladder irrigants for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infection [21].
  • Comparative therapeutic and toxic effects of different povidone iodine (PVP-I) formulations in a model of oral candidosis based on in vitro reconstituted epithelium [22].
  • Our results suggest that suppressor cell development resulting from Betadine treatment is reversible [23].
  • In a prospective randomized study, the influence was assessed of vaginal disinfection with a 1% solution of povidon iodine (Betadine), before performing a transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval, on fertilization, cleavage rate and pregnancy rate [24].
  • Cytotoxicity of PVP-I for corneal fibroblasts in culture was assessed using the MTT assay [25].

Associations of Povidone with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Povidone

  • Povidone-iodine (Betadine) solution was maximally effective at the 1:100 dilution, killing all the MRSA within 15 s; other dilutions were less effective, though each killed the MRSA within 120 s [30].
  • Four methods of catheter fixation were used: (a) povidone-iodine ointment (Betadine) with a sterile gauze and adhesive dressing (Elastoplast); (b) Op-Site film; (c) Op-Site spray followed by Op-Site film; and (d) Beta-dine and Op-Site film [31].
  • PVP-I exhibited a superior killing effect whether measured by rate of kill or final LRF achieved [32].
  • Between May 1983 and December 1989, 2,921 donor eyes received by the Minnesota Lions Eye Bank underwent a decontamination protocol using 10% Betadine (1% povidone-iodine) solution [33].
  • Although no commercial product for repeated application on the eye is currently available, PVP-I has been used in ophthalmology not only for pre- and postoperative antisepsis, but also for the treatment of bacterial and viral conjunctivitis and for prophylaxis against ophthalmia neonatorum [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Povidone

  • There was significant improvement in all treatment groups except those treated with antiseptic lavage using PVP-I and noxythiolin [35].
  • There was a suggestion of a slight decrease in the incidence of urinary tract infections during the use of PVP-I in the intermittent catheterization group in this uncontrolled study, but the percentage of positive urine cultures was greater than desired [21].
  • INTERVENTIONS: Five pigs, under general anesthesia, were prepared with tap-water enemas, a peranal antibiotic lavage, and a Betadine rinse [36].
  • All of the tissue involved was irrigated with betadine and peroxide, after debridement of the necrotic tissue [37].
  • One hundred thirty ears were prospectively randomized into prepared (Betadine and alcohol) and nonprepared (control) groups [38].


  1. Thyrotoxicosis induced by topical iodine application. Shetty, K.R., Duthie, E.H. Arch. Intern. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. In vitro effectiveness of povidone-iodine on Acanthamoeba isolates from human cornea. Gatti, S., Cevini, C., Bruno, A., Penso, G., Rama, P., Scaglia, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Human skin flora as a potential source of epidural abscess. Sato, S., Sakuragi, T., Dan, K. Anesthesiology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Povidone-iodine bladder injury in rats and protection with heparin. Chang, S.Y., Gill, W.B., Vermeulen, C.W. J. Urol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Rectal washout with cytotoxic solution can be extended to the whole colon. Mariani, P.P., van Pelt, J.F., Ectors, N., Topal, B., D'Hoore, A., Penninckx, F. The British journal of surgery. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevention of haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis catheter related infection by topical povidone-iodine. Fong, I.W. Postgraduate medical journal. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Inhibitory effect of povidone-iodine for the antigen expression of human cytomegalovirus. Numazaki, K., Asanuma, H. In Vivo (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Protein-linked iodotyrosines in serum after topical application of povidone-iodine (Betadine). Alexander, N.M., Nishimoto, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Intestinal decontamination using povidone-iodine compromises small bowel storage quality. Olson, D.W., Kadota, S., Cornish, A., Madsen, K.L., Zeng, J., Jewell, L.D., Bigam, D.L., Churchill, T.A. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Zero tolerance to shunt infections: can it be achieved? Choksey, M.S., Malik, I.A. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of community composition and growth rate on aquifer biofilm bacteria and their susceptibility to betadine disinfection. Whiteley, M., Ott, J.R., Weaver, E.A., McLean, R.J. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Validation of biocides against duck hepatitis B virus as a surrogate virus for human hepatitis B virus. Sauerbrei, A., Schacke, M., Gl??ck, B., Egerer, R., Wutzler, P. J. Hosp. Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Inactivation of human adenovirus genome by different groups of disinfectants. Sauerbrei, A., Sehr, K., Eichhorn, U., Reimer, K., Wutzler, P. J. Hosp. Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. A comparison of the effect of povidone-iodine and 60% n-propanol on the resident flora using a new test method. Hartmann, A.A. J. Hosp. Infect. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Mechanisms of killing of spores of Bacillus subtilis by iodine, glutaraldehyde and nitrous acid. Tennen, R., Setlow, B., Davis, K.L., Loshon, C.A., Setlow, P. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Efficacy of Perimed antibacterial system on established gingivitis. (I). Clinical results. Clark, W.B., Magnusson, I., Walker, C.B., Marks, R.G. Journal of clinical periodontology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. An in-vitro evaluation of the activity of povidone-iodine against nosocomial bacterial strains. Traoré, O., Fayard, S.F., Laveran, H. J. Hosp. Infect. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Povidone-iodine's effects and role in the management of periodontal diseases: a review. Greenstein, G. J. Periodontol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Cord blood iodothyronine and thyrotropin concentrations in newborns of mothers exposed to povidone iodine in the last trimester. Robuschi, G., Montermini, M., Alboni, A., Borciani, E., Cersosimo, G., Negrotti, L., Gnudi, A., Safran, M., Braverman, L.E., Roti, E. J. Endocrinol. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Virucidal activity and cytotoxicity of the liposomal formulation of povidone-iodine. Wutzler, P., Sauerbrei, A., Klöcking, R., Brögmann, B., Reimer, K. Antiviral Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Evaluation of povidone-iodine as vesical irrigant for treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections. Sharpe, J.R., Sadlowski, R.W., Finney, R.P., Halkias, D.G. Urology (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Comparative therapeutic and toxic effects of different povidone iodine (PVP-I) formulations in a model of oral candidosis based on in vitro reconstituted epithelium. Bonowitz, A., Schaller, M., Laude, J., Reimer, K., Korting, H.C. Journal of drug targeting. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversal of povidone-iodine-induced suppressor cell activity by sodium borohydride. Ninnemann, J.L., Morrison, L. Immunol. Lett. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Vaginal disinfection with povidon iodine and the outcome of in-vitro fertilization. van Os, H.C., Roozenburg, B.J., Janssen-Caspers, H.A., Leerentveld, R.A., Scholtes, M.C., Zeilmaker, G.H., Alberda, A.T. Hum. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Microbial decontamination of human donor eyes with povidone-iodine: penetration, toxicity, and effectiveness. Pels, E., Vrensen, G.F. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in a detergent base (Hibiclens) and povidone-iodine (Betadine) for the skin preparation of hemodialysis patients and personnel. Goldblum, S.E., Ulrich, J.A., Goldman, R.S., Reed, W.P., Avasthi, P.S. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Combined skin disinfection with chlorhexidine/propanol and aqueous povidone-iodine reduces bacterial colonisation of central venous catheters. Langgartner, J., Linde, H.J., Lehn, N., Reng, M., Schölmerich, J., Glück, T. Intensive care medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Transcolonic endoscopic abdominal exploration: a NOTES survival study in a porcine model. Fong, D.G., Pai, R.D., Thompson, C.C. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  29. Evaluation of topical povidone-iodine in chronic suppurative otitis media. Jaya, C., Job, A., Mathai, E., Antonisamy, B. Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Bactericidal activity of antiseptics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Haley, C.E., Marling-Cason, M., Smith, J.W., Luby, J.P., Mackowiak, P.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Protection of indwelling vascular catheters: incidence of bacterial contamination and catheter-related sepsis. Ricard, P., Martin, R., Marcoux, J.A. Crit. Care Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. In-vitro evaluation of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. McLure, A.R., Gordon, J. J. Hosp. Infect. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Betadine decontamination of donor globes. Mindrup, E.A., Dubbel, P.A., Doughman, D.J. Cornea (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Povidone-iodine liposomes--an overview. Reimer, K., Fleischer, W., Brögmann, B., Schreier, H., Burkhard, P., Lanzendörfer, A., Gümbel, H., Hoekstra, H., Behrens-Baumann, W. Dermatology (Basel) (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Towards a rational approach to the treatment of peritonitis: an experimental study in rats. McAvinchey, D.J., McCollum, P.T., Lynch, G. The British journal of surgery. (1984) [Pubmed]
  36. Transcolonic endoscopic cholecystectomy: a NOTES survival study in a porcine model (with video). Pai, R.D., Fong, D.G., Bundga, M.E., Odze, R.D., Rattner, D.W., Thompson, C.C. Gastrointest. Endosc. (2006) [Pubmed]
  37. Minimal debridement in the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. Frezza, E.E., Atlas, I. The American surgeon. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Posttympanostomy otorrhea: the efficacy of canal preparation. Scott, B.A., Strunk, C.L. Laryngoscope (1992) [Pubmed]
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