The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

CHROMIUM     chromium

Synonyms: Chrome, Chrom, cromo, chromide(-I), chromide(1-), ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of chromium

  • The toxicity and carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium (Cr) in animal and human models are reviewed [1].
  • From the epidemiological studies, there is suggestive evidence that hexavalent Cr causes increased risk of bone, prostate, lymphomas, Hodgkins, leukemia, stomach, genital, renal, and bladder cancer, reflecting the ability of hexavalent chromate to penetrate all tissues in the body [1].
  • These results show that FA-A cells are hypersensitive to Cr(VI) and Cr-induced apoptosis and that this hypersensitivity is not due to increased Cr(VI) uptake or increased Cr-DNA adduct formation [2].
  • 17 chromium(III) compounds have been tested for DNA-damaging capabilities using an E. coli differential repair assay and for mutagenicity in strains of Salmonella typhimurium [3].
  • Among the Cr (VI) reducing bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1) is relatively effective [4].

High impact information on chromium


Chemical compound and disease context of chromium

  • Toxicity of Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), and Mercury (Hg) on the early developmental stages of Ciona intestinalis was investigated [7].
  • 6. Chromium supplementation, but not biotin supplementation, attenuated the decline in performance and antioxidant status resulting from heat stress [8].
  • Results have shown that this particular strain of Shewanella did not appreciably reduce Mn(IV) to Mn(II) species nor biosorbed Cr and Mn during its metabolic activities [9].
  • Nickel ingestion can cause exacerbation of dermatitis in patients who are already nickel-sensitive; Chromium (Cr VI) is the 2nd allergen, after nickel [10].
  • The paradigm emerging for the provision of dietary guidance that includes consideration of the total health effects of a nutrient, not just the prevention of a deficiency disease, has resulted in dietary guidance for chromium (Cr) and fluoride; both of these elements have beneficial effects in humans, but neither has a defined biochemical function [11].

Biological context of chromium

  • Different chromium(III) compounds were effective at enhancing insulin receptor phosphorylation in intact cells, but did not directly activate recombinant insulin receptor kinase [12].
  • Because cell attachment mechanisms are likely to influence signal transduction and regulation of gene expression, these early differential responses of osteoblastic cells on Ti and CC may have functional implications on subsequent extracellular matrix mineralization and bone ingrowth at the cell-biomaterial interface [13].
  • Following cellular uptake, Cr[VI] can cause DNA damage, however, the mechanisms by which mammalian cells respond to Cr-induced DNA damage remain to be elucidated [14].
  • The objective of this paper is to present a rational approach to determine the dual-enzyme reaction kinetics of Cr (VI) reduction by MR-1 from continuous flow soil column experiments which more accurately simulate the subsurface environment [4].
  • Biotransformation of Cr(VI) in highly contaminated soil (22,000 mg Cr/kg) was facilitated by mixing with less-contaminated soil [15].

Anatomical context of chromium


Associations of chromium with other chemical compounds

  • Also, alpha 3 was not present on rough Ti, polished CC, or rough CC, and beta 3 was not expressed by cells on rough CC [19].
  • Decidual CD8(+) T lymphocytes exhibited cytolytic ability against P815 target cells (mean % Specific Chromium Release at effector:target ratio of 32:1 [SCR(32)] of 32.7 +/- 5.8) and against K562 target cells (mean SCR(32) of 20.3 +/- 0.5) [20].
  • Blood concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb were higher in the welders than in the control group while higher concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, and Pb were detected in welder urines [21].
  • The concentration in serum of soluble products of corrosion from the implant, that is, chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni) ions, and the number of white blood cells (leucocytes, myeloid cells, lymphocyte subpopulations) were measured [22].
  • Functional Characteristics of NaS2, a Placenta-specific Na(+)-coupled Transporter for Sulfate and Oxyanions of the Micronutrients Selenium and Chromium [23].

Gene context of chromium

  • Only in revision surgery patients with high Cr concentrations did we find a significant decrease of lymphocytes, namely of CD4 and CD16 positive cells; revision surgery patients with normal Cr concentrations did not show a significant decrease of lymphocyte subpopulations [22].
  • Critical role of chromium (Cr)-DNA interactions in the formation of Cr-induced polymerase arresting lesions [24].
  • Furthermore, three-dimensional CLSM reconstruction analysis indicated the presence of vinculin at all membrane-to-surface contact points on both Ti and CC [13].
  • The use of on-line visualization for providing feedback to the scientist is described, including the ways in which it may be enhanced through tools such as Chromium and Access Grid [25].
  • Chromium as an industrial carcinogen: Part II. Chromium in human tissues [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chromium

  • Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observed that, during the first 12 h of contact with the substratum, osteoblastic cells were relatively less spread on rough Ti, whereas cells appeared elongated with multiple cellular extensions on rough CC [13].
  • In the arthroplasty patients the Cr concentrations were inversely correlated with some of the immunologic parameters while no significant correlation was found between Co levels and decreased lymphocyte subpopulations [22].
  • Tissue contents and subcellular distribution of chromium and other trace metals in experimental diabetic rats after intravenous injection of Cr 50-enriched stable isotopic tracer solution [27].
  • In the present study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of P. tomentosa extract against Chromium (VI) induced immunosuppression in splenic lymphocytes [28].
  • Other data suggest that Cr conservation is accomplished primarily by lack of glomerular filtration or by tissue binding to a specific Cr-binding substance [29].


  1. Toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in animal models and humans. Costa, M. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Fanconi anemia complementation group A cells are hypersensitive to chromium(VI)-induced toxicity. Vilcheck, S.K., O'Brien, T.J., Pritchard, D.E., Ha, L., Ceryak, S., Fornsaglio, J.L., Patierno, S.R. Environ. Health Perspect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutagenicity of a series of hexacoordinate chromium (III) compounds. Warren, G., Schultz, P., Bancroft, D., Bennett, K., Abbott, E.H., Rogers, S. Mutat. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Estimating the dual-enzyme kinetic parameters for Cr (VI) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 from soil column experiments. Hossain, M.A., Alam, M., Yonge, D.R. Water Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Role of valence state and solubility of chromium compounds on induction of cytotoxicity, mutagenesis, and anchorage independence in diploid human fibroblasts. Biedermann, K.A., Landolph, J.R. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of hTERT on metal ion-induced genomic instability. Glaviano, A., Nayak, V., Cabuy, E., Baird, D.M., Yin, Z., Newson, R., Ladon, D., Rubio, M.A., Slijepcevic, P., Lyng, F., Mothersill, C., Case, C.P. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Sublethal effects of trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg) on embryogenesis and larval settlement of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Bellas, J., Beiras, R., Vázquez, E. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. Sahin, N., Sahin, K., Onderci, M., Gursu, M.F., Cikim, G., Vijaya, J., Kucuk, O. Br. Poult. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Microbiological reduction of chromium(VI) in presence of pyrolusite-coated sand by Shewanella alga Simidu ATCC 55627 in laboratory column experiments. Guha, H., Jayachandran, K., Maurrasse, F. Chemosphere (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Contribution to chromium and nickel enrichment during cooking of foods in stainless steel utensils. Accominotti, M., Bost, M., Haudrechy, P., Mantout, B., Cunat, P.J., Comet, F., Mouterde, C., Plantard, F., Chambon, P., Vallon, J.J. Contact Derm. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron. Nielsen, F.H. Biological trace element research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Cellular chromium enhances activation of insulin receptor kinase. Wang, H., Kruszewski, A., Brautigan, D.L. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. High-resolution morphometric analysis of human osteoblastic cell adhesion on clinically relevant orthopedic alloys. Shah, A.K., Sinha, R.K., Hickok, N.J., Tuan, R.S. Bone (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The ATM-SMC1 pathway is essential for activation of the chromium[VI]-induced S-phase checkpoint. Wakeman, T.P., Kim, W.J., Callens, S., Chiu, A., Brown, K.D., Xu, B. Mutat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Low-temperature chromium(VI) biotransformation in soil with varying electron acceptors. Tseng, J.K., Bielefeldt, A.R. J. Environ. Qual. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1/leukocyte function associated antigen-1 blockade inhibits alloantigen specific human T cell effector functions without inducing anergy. Calhoun, R.F., Oppat, W.F., Duffy, B., Mohanakumar, T. Transplantation (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Carbohydrates borne on human glycophorin A are recognized by porcine Kupffer cells. Burlak, C., Twining, L.M., Rees, M.A. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Response of bovine alveolar macrophages in vitro to welding fume particles. White, L.R., Marthinsen, A.B., Jakobsen, K., Eik-Nes, K.B. Environ. Health Perspect. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of human osteoblast integrin expression by orthopedic implant materials. Sinha, R.K., Tuan, R.S. Bone (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Effector Activity of Decidual CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Early Human Pregnancy. Scaife, P.J., Bulmer, J.N., Robson, S.C., Innes, B.A., Searle, R.F. Biol. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Assessment of occupational exposure to welding fumes by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy and by the alkaline Comet assay. Botta, C., Iarmarcovai, G., Chaspoul, F., Sari-Minodier, I., Pompili, J., Orsière, T., Bergé-Lefranc, J.L., Botta, A., Gallice, P., De Méo, M. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of metal ions on white blood cells of patients with failed total joint arthroplasties. Savarino, L., Granchi, D., Ciapetti, G., Stea, S., Donati, M.E., Zinghi, G., Fontanesi, G., Rotini, R., Montanaro, L. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Functional Characteristics of NaS2, a Placenta-specific Na(+)-coupled Transporter for Sulfate and Oxyanions of the Micronutrients Selenium and Chromium. Miyauchi, S., Srinivas, S.R., Fei, Y.J., Gopal, E., Umapathy, N.S., Wang, H., Conway, S.J., Ganapathy, V., Prasad, P.D. Placenta (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Critical role of chromium (Cr)-DNA interactions in the formation of Cr-induced polymerase arresting lesions. O'Brien, T., Mandel, H.G., Pritchard, D.E., Patierno, S.R. Biochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. A practical toolkit for computational steering. Pickles, S.M., Haines, R., Pinning, R.L., Porter, A.R. Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Chromium as an industrial carcinogen: Part II. Chromium in human tissues. Mancuso, T.F. Am. J. Ind. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Tissue contents and subcellular distribution of chromium and other trace metals in experimental diabetic rats after intravenous injection of Cr 50-enriched stable isotopic tracer solution. Feng, W., Qian, Q., Ding, W., Chai, Z. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunomodulatory effects of Premna tomentosa extract against Cr (VI) induced toxicity in splenic lymphocytes--an in vitro study. Pandima Devi, K., Sai Ram, M., Sreepriya, M., Ilavazhagan, G., Devaki, T. Biomed. Pharmacother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Radiochromium distribution during saline diuresis. Wallach, S., Verch, R.L. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. (1986) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities