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Chemical Compound Review

Rivotite     carbonic acid; copper; dihydrate

Synonyms: Malachite, AKOS009156945, 1319-53-5, Malachite (Cu2(CO3)(OH)2)
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Disease relevance of Malachite


High impact information on Malachite

  • To establish whether these viral proteins were dual specificity protein phosphatases, the CAV GST-VP2 and TLMV GST-ORF2 fusion proteins were also assayed for serine/threonine phosphatase (S/T PPase) activity using the generalized peptide substrate RRApTVA, with free phosphate detected using the malachite green colorimetric assay [6].
  • PHB granules with distinct membranes were detected by electron microscopy after fixation and staining of V. harveyi cells with malachite green [7].
  • We examined the effect of ROS on SHP-2 in cardiac fibroblasts using a modified malachite green phosphatase assay [8].
  • Nuclei derived from normal mucosal epithelium and tumors were analyzed for phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase activity using the malachite green assay and a synthetic phosphotyrosyl peptide based on the sequence of cdc2, a known cdc25A phosphotyrosyl protein substrate [9].
  • Dose-response effects of malachite green on free radical formation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in Syrian hamster embryo cells and their modulation by antioxidants [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Malachite


Biological context of Malachite


Anatomical context of Malachite


Associations of Malachite with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Malachite

  • A malachite green binding motif, defined by an asymmetric internal loop flanked by short RNA helices, was inserted immediately upstream of the CLB2 start codon [27].
  • For all dyes the inhibition was best characterised as non-competitive. hGSTP 1-1 was not inhibited by Crystal Violet or by Ethyl Violet but was strongly inhibited by Malachite Green (Ki = 0.3 microM) [28].
  • This paper describes the development of a new, malachite green based, enzymatic assay for the identification of specific inhibitors of inorganic pyrophosphatase (iPPase) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for antifungal drug discovery [29].
  • DNA damage and G2/M arrest in Syrian hamster embryo cells during Malachite green exposure are associated with elevated phosphorylation of ERK1 and JNK1 [30].
  • PTEN activity was determined using the Malachite Green assay basing upon dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) by the PTEN enzyme and subsequent determination of inorganic phosphate released [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Malachite

  • Myosin ATPase activities determined by the HPLC method were almost identical to those determined by the malachite green method, a widely used spectrophotometric method with range of detection from 1 to 8 nmol of phosphate [32].
  • Specimens were examined using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with standard processing protocols plus a malachite green-glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide (MGO) method, used to retain lipids normally removed from tissues during preparation for electron microscopy [33].
  • Malachite green-conjugated microtubules as mobile bioprobes selective for malachite green aptamers with capturing/releasing ability [34].
  • CD73 activity was measurement using a malachite green method and RT-PCR was used to analyze enzyme expression [35].
  • Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 and 0.5 microgram/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively [36].


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  2. Decolorization of malachite green and crystal violet by waterborne pathogenic mycobacteria. Jones, J.J., Falkinham, J.O. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Lipids and membranes in the organic matrix of urinary calcific crystals and stones. Khan, S.R., Atmani, F., Glenton, P., Hou, Z., Talham, D.R., Khurshid, M. Calcif. Tissue Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Toxicity and metabolism of malachite green and leucomalachite green during short-term feeding to Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Culp, S.J., Blankenship, L.R., Kusewitt, D.F., Doerge, D.R., Mulligan, L.T., Beland, F.A. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Malachite green therapy of proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout: field trials. Alderman, D.J., Clifton-Hadley, R.S. Vet. Rec. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Chicken anemia virus VP2 is a novel dual specificity protein phosphatase. Peters, M.A., Jackson, D.C., Crabb, B.S., Browning, G.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, and regulation by the lux autoinducer, N-(3-hydroxybutanoyl)homoserine lactone. Sun, W., Cao, J.G., Teng, K., Meighen, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Reactive oxygen species generation is involved in epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation through the transient oxidization of Src homology 2-containing tyrosine phosphatase in endothelin-1 signaling pathway in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Chen, C.H., Cheng, T.H., Lin, H., Shih, N.L., Chen, Y.L., Chen, Y.S., Cheng, C.F., Lian, W.S., Meng, T.C., Chiu, W.T., Chen, J.J. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Elevated expression of the cdc25A protein phosphatase in colon cancer. Dixon, D., Moyana, T., King, M.J. Exp. Cell Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Dose-response effects of malachite green on free radical formation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage in Syrian hamster embryo cells and their modulation by antioxidants. Panandiker, A., Maru, G.B., Rao, K.V. Carcinogenesis (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Carcinogenicity of malachite green chloride and leucomalachite green in B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats. Culp, S.J., Mellick, P.W., Trotter, R.W., Greenlees, K.J., Kodell, R.L., Beland, F.A. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Growth of Salmonella enterica in model mixed cultures during a two-step enrichment. Krascsenicsov??, K., Kacl??kov??, E., Kuchta, T. New Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Kinetics of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by shortening myofibrils from rabbit psoas muscle. Ohno, T., Kodama, T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Biotransformation of malachite green by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. Cha, C.J., Doerge, D.R., Cerniglia, C.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of malachite green and metabolites in fish using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Doerge, D.R., Churchwell, M.I., Gehring, T.A., Pu, Y.M., Plakas, S.M. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Asymmetric division of immature lymphoid cells of the embryonic mouse thymus. Sugimoto, M., Yasuda, T. Immunol. Lett. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. No-discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization: evaluation and application to the analysis of animal drug residues in complex matrices. Turnipseed, S.B., Andersen, W.C., Karbiwnyk, C.M., Roybal, J.E., Miller, K.E. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Combined use of malachite green fixation and PLA2-gold complex technique to localize phospholipids in areas of early calcification of rat epiphyseal cartilage and bone. Silvestrini, G., Zini, N., Sabatelli, P., Mocetti, P., Maraldi, N.M., Bonucci, E. Bone (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Lipid detection by malachite green-aldehyde in the dental basement membrane in the rat incisor. Goldberg, M., Lecolle, S., Ruch, J.V., Staubli, A., Septier, D. Cell Tissue Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Rapid-freezing and malachite green-acrolein-osmium tetroxide freeze-substitution fixation improve visualization of extracellular lipids in rat incisor pre-dentin and dentin. Goldberg, M., Escaig, F. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Accumulation, nature, and possible functions of the malachite green affinity material in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Soupart, P., Anderson, M.L., Albert, D.H., Coniglio, J.G., Repp, J.E. Fertil. Steril. (1979) [Pubmed]
  22. Reduction of malachite green to leucomalachite green by intestinal bacteria. Henderson, A.L., Schmitt, T.C., Heinze, T.M., Cerniglia, C.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in carp muscle by liquid chromatography with visible and fluorescence detection. Mitrowska, K., Posyniak, A., Zmudzki, J. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Photodegradation of dye pollutants catalyzed by porous K3PW12O40 under visible irradiation. Chen, C., Wang, Q., Lei, P., Song, W., Ma, W., Zhao, J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Epizootiology of protozoans in farmed salmonids at northern latitudes. Rintamäki-Kinnunen, P., Valtonen, E.T. Int. J. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Association of malachite green-positive material with heparan sulfate proteoglycan double tracks in basement membrane of mouse kidney tubules. Inoue, S. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Inducible regulation of the S. cerevisiae cell cycle mediated by an RNA aptamer-ligand complex. Grate, D., Wilson, C. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of human glutathione S-transferases by basic triphenylmethane dyes. Glanville, S.D., Clark, A.G. Life Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. High-throughput assay for inorganic pyrophosphatases using the cytosolic enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human as an example. Rumsfeld, J., Ziegelbauer, K., Spaltmann, F. Protein Expr. Purif. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. DNA damage and G2/M arrest in Syrian hamster embryo cells during Malachite green exposure are associated with elevated phosphorylation of ERK1 and JNK1. Bose, B., Motiwale, L., Rao, K.V. Cancer Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Interaction of cisplatin, paclitaxel and adriamycin with the tumor suppressor PTEN. Schöndorf, T., Becker, M., Göhring, U.J., Wappenschmidt, B., Kolhagen, H., Kurbacher, C.M. Anticancer Drugs (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. A highly sensitive method for measurement of myosin ATPase activity by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Samizo, K., Ishikawa, R., Nakamura, A., Kohama, K. Anal. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Association of magnesium whitlockite crystals with lipid components of the extracellular matrix in human articular cartilage. Scotchford, C.A., Ali, S.Y. Osteoarthr. Cartil. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Malachite green-conjugated microtubules as mobile bioprobes selective for malachite green aptamers with capturing/releasing ability. Hirabayashi, M., Taira, S., Kobayashi, S., Konishi, K., Katoh, K., Hiratsuka, Y., Kodaka, M., Uyeda, T.Q., Yumoto, N., Kubo, T. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Thyroid hormone stimulates 5'-ecto-nucleotidase of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Carneiro-Ramos, M.S., da Silva, V.B., Coutinho, M.B., Battastini, A.M., Sarkis, J.J., Barreto-Chaves, M.L. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Allen, J.L., Gofus, J.E., Meinertz, J.R. Journal of AOAC International. (1994) [Pubmed]
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