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Chemical Compound Review

Gemini     3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1- methoxy-1-methyl...

Synonyms: Lorox plus, LS-36528, AC1L55WU, 120812-76-2
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Disease relevance of Lorox plus


High impact information on Lorox plus


Chemical compound and disease context of Lorox plus


Biological context of Lorox plus

  • Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Ti plasmids containing tandem genome repeats derived from different strains of the gemini-virus beet curly top virus (BCTV) resulted in the production of unit-length recombinant progeny genomes in systemically infected plants [16].
  • The gemini pollen1 mutant was characterized in detail and shown to act gametophytically resulting in reduced transmission through both sexes. gemini pollen1 showed an incompletely penetrant phenotype resulting in equal, unequal and partial divisions at pollen mitosis I [17].
  • Transfection mediated by gemini surfactants: engineered escape from the endosomal compartment [18].
  • Control of such colloidal changes could be as significant as the changes in the molecular composition of the gemini surfactants in delivering optimum gene expression in animal models [19].
  • Assuming that the mechanism of transfection by synthetic cationic surfactants involves endocytosis, we contend that the efficacy of gemini surfactant 1 as a gene delivery vehicle can be explained by the unprecedented observation of a pH-induced formation of the inverted hexagonal phase of the lipoplex in the endosomal pH range [18].

Anatomical context of Lorox plus

  • Novel patterns of ectopic cell plate growth and lipid body distribution in the Arabidopsis gemini pollen1 mutant [20].
  • We show that depletion of Smn in these cells resulted in a decrease in the number of nuclear 'gems' (gemini of coiled bodies), reduced proliferation with no increase in cell death, defects in myoblast fusion, and malformed myotubes [21].
  • Cationic liposomes formulated with neutral 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cationic gemini surfactants were used for transfecting different cell lines with a reporter gene [22].
  • Conventional and gemini surfactants embedded within bilayer membranes: contrasting behavior [23].
  • The efficiencies of the binary liposomes composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and cationic gemini surfactant, (2S,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide as transfection vectors, were measured using the enhanced green fluorescent protein coding plasmid and COS-1 cells [24].

Associations of Lorox plus with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Lorox plus

  • The original mutant mor1 alleles were reported to have disrupted cortical microtubules, swollen organs and normal cytokinesis, whereas other alleles, embryo-lethal gemini pollen 1 (gem1), have defective pollen cytokinesis [30].
  • Coactivators were found to shift the ligand sensitivity (by a factor of 4 for Gemini) and the ratio of VDR conformations in the presence of DNA toward the high-affinity ligand binding conformation (c1(LPD)) [31].
  • The properties of a novel disulfide-bond-containing gemini surfactant bis[N,N-dimethyl-N-hexadecyl-N-(2-mercaptoethyl)ammonium bromide] disulfide (DSP) were studied using a Langmuir balance, supported monolayers, differential scanning calorimetry, giant vesicles, and LUVs [32].
  • Under these conditions Gemini stabilizes the VDR into a silent conformation, in which helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain is repositioned and thus unable to contribute to coactivator interaction [33].
  • In vivo cutaneous interferon-gamma gene delivery using novel dicationic (gemini) surfactant-plasmid complexes [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lorox plus

  • The structure of the lipoplex formed from DNA and the sugar-based cationic gemini surfactant 1, which exhibits excellent transfection efficiency, has been investigated in the pH range 8.8-3.0 utilizing small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) [18].
  • The efficiency in the transfection has been correlated to the high extent of DNA condensation observed by circular dichroism, condensation shown to depend heavily on the gemini spacer structure [22].
  • METHODS: Novel dicationic (gemini) surfactant (spacer length n=2-16; alkyl chain m=12 or 16)-DNA complexes were formulated and characterized by circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy to select gemini analogues with the highest transfection efficiency (TE) [26].
  • Mixed cationic liposomes composed by different ratios of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcoline (DMPC) and a cationic gemini surfactant have been studied by various physicochemical tools as vehicles for m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC), a photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy [34].
  • The use of the polymerase chain reaction for the amplification of gemini- and other virus genomes or genomic fragments for typing, mapping, phylogenetic analysis and taxonomy is discussed [35].


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  2. Assessing the evidence on aspirin in diabetes mellitus. Gemini or Libra; lumping or splitting; surrogate or hard; low or high; interventionist or nihilist. Yudkin, J.S. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT for staging of penile cancer. Scher, B., Seitz, M., Reiser, M., Hungerhuber, E., Hahn, K., Tiling, R., Herzog, P., Reiser, M., Schneede, P., Dresel, S. J. Nucl. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene expression profiling changes induced by a novel Gemini Vitamin D derivative during the progression of breast cancer. Lee, H.J., Liu, H., Goodman, C., Ji, Y., Maehr, H., Uskokovic, M., Notterman, D., Reiss, M., Suh, N. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Nucleotide sequence of a circular single-stranded DNA associated with coconut foliar decay virus. Rohde, W., Randles, J.W., Langridge, P., Hanold, D. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetic analysis of vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanosensation: the zebrafish circler mutants. Nicolson, T., Rüsch, A., Friedrich, R.W., Granato, M., Ruppersberg, J.P., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. The spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product, SMN: A link between snRNP biogenesis and the Cajal (coiled) body. Carvalho, T., Almeida, F., Calapez, A., Lafarga, M., Berciano, M.T., Carmo-Fonseca, M. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Regional and temporal specialization in the nucleus: a transcriptionally-active nuclear domain rich in PTF, Oct1 and PIKA antigens associates with specific chromosomes early in the cell cycle. Pombo, A., Cuello, P., Schul, W., Yoon, J.B., Roeder, R.G., Cook, P.R., Murphy, S. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel nuclear structure containing the survival of motor neurons protein. Liu, Q., Dreyfuss, G. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Higher order arrangement of the eukaryotic nuclear bodies. Wang, I.F., Reddy, N.M., Shen, C.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Renal stone risk in a simulated microgravity environment: impact of treadmill exercise with lower body negative pressure. Monga, M., Macias, B., Groppo, E., Kostelec, M., Hargens, A. J. Urol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Calcitriol derivatives with two different side chains at C-20 III. An epimeric pair of the gemini family with unprecedented antiproliferative effects on tumor cells and renin mRNA expression inhibition. Maehr, H., Uskokovic, M., Adorini, L., Penna, G., Mariani, R., Panina, P., Passini, N., Bono, E., Perego, S., Biffi, M., Holick, M., Spina, C., Suh, N. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Metabolic effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. Bakris, G.L., Fonseca, V., Katholi, R.E., McGill, J.B., Messerli, F.H., Phillips, R.A., Raskin, P., Wright, J.T., Oakes, R., Lukas, M.A., Anderson, K.M., Bell, D.S. JAMA (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Metabolic Effects of beta-Adrenoceptor Antagonists with Special Emphasis on Carvedilol. Kveiborg, B., Christiansen, B., Major-Petersen, A., Torp-Pedersen, C. American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Single-pill therapy in the treatment of concomitant hypertension and dyslipidemia (the amlodipine/atorvastatin gemini study). Blank, R., LaSalle, J., Reeves, R., Maroni, J., Tarasenko, L., Sun, F. Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich, Conn.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Replicational release of geminivirus genomes from tandemly repeated copies: evidence for rolling-circle replication of a plant viral DNA. Stenger, D.C., Revington, G.N., Stevenson, M.C., Bisaro, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. The Arabidopsis thaliana gametophytic mutation gemini pollen1 disrupts microspore polarity, division asymmetry and pollen cell fate. Park, S.K., Howden, R., Twell, D. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Transfection mediated by gemini surfactants: engineered escape from the endosomal compartment. Bell, P.C., Bergsma, M., Dolbnya, I.P., Bras, W., Stuart, M.C., Rowan, A.E., Feiters, M.C., Engberts, J.B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Rational approaches to the design of cationic gemini surfactants for gene delivery. McGregor, C., Perrin, C., Monck, M., Camilleri, P., Kirby, A.J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Novel patterns of ectopic cell plate growth and lipid body distribution in the Arabidopsis gemini pollen1 mutant. Park, S.K., Twell, D. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Hypomorphic Smn knockdown C2C12 myoblasts reveal intrinsic defects in myoblast fusion and myotube morphology. Shafey, D., Côté, P.D., Kothary, R. Exp. Cell Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Efficient transfection of DNA by liposomes formulated with cationic gemini amphiphiles. Bombelli, C., Faggioli, F., Luciani, P., Mancini, G., Sacco, M.G. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Conventional and gemini surfactants embedded within bilayer membranes: contrasting behavior. Yaroslavov, A.A., Udalykh OYu, n.u.l.l., Melik-Nubarov, N.S., Kabanov, V.A., Ermakov, Y.A., Azov, V.A., Menger, F.M. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Surface charge density determines the efficiency of cationic gemini surfactant based lipofection. Ryhänen, S.J., Säily, M.J., Paukku, T., Borocci, S., Mancini, G., Holopainen, J.M., Kinnunen, P.K. Biophys. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH. Johnsson, M., Wagenaar, A., Engberts, J.B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo cutaneous interferon-gamma gene delivery using novel dicationic (gemini) surfactant-plasmid complexes. Badea, I., Verrall, R., Baca-Estrada, M., Tikoo, S., Rosenberg, A., Kumar, P., Foldvari, M. The journal of gene medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. The unusual micelle micropolarity of partially fluorinated gemini surfactants sensed by pyrene fluorescence. Asakawa, T., Okada, T., Hayasaka, T., Kuwamoto, K., Ohta, A., Miyagishi, S. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Degree of micelle ionization and micellar growth for gemini surfactants detected by 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium fluorescence quenching. Kuwamoto, K., Asakawa, T., Ohta, A., Miyagishi, S. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Vitamin A and beta-carotene supply of women with gemini or short birth intervals : A pilot study. Schulz, C., Engel, U., Kreienberg, R., Biesalski, H.K. European journal of nutrition (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Aberrant cell plate formation in the Arabidopsis thaliana microtubule organization 1 mutant. Eleftheriou, E.P., Baskin, T.I., Hepler, P.K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Response element and coactivator-mediated conformational change of the vitamin D(3) receptor permits sensitive interaction with agonists. Herdick, M., Bury, Y., Quack, M., Uskokovic, M.R., Polly, P., Carlberg, C. Mol. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Impact of reductive cleavage of an intramolecular disulfide bond containing cationic gemini surfactant in monolayers and bilayers. Säily, V.M., Ryhänen, S.J., Lankinen, H., Luciani, P., Mancini, G., Parry, M.J., Kinnunen, P.K. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Corepressor excess shifts the two-side chain vitamin D analog Gemini from an agonist to an inverse agonist of the vitamin D receptor. Gonzalez, M.M., Samenfeld, P., Peräkylä, M., Carlberg, C. Mol. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Inclusion of a photosensitizer in liposomes formed by DMPC/gemini surfactant: correlation between physicochemical and biological features of the complexes. Bombelli, C., Caracciolo, G., Di Profio, P., Diociaiuti, M., Luciani, P., Mancini, G., Mazzuca, C., Marra, M., Molinari, A., Monti, D., Toccacieli, L., Venanzi, M. J. Med. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Detection and typing of maize streak virus and other distantly related geminiviruses of grasses by polymerase chain reaction amplification of a conserved viral sequence. Rybicki, E.P., Hughes, F.L. J. Gen. Virol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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