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Gene Review

Pc  -  pyruvate carboxylase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PCB, Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial, Pyruvic carboxylase
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Disease relevance of Pc


Psychiatry related information on Pc

  • We suggest that the reductions in brain dopamine concentrations are a consequence of ortho-substituted PCB congener-induced inhibition of the synthesis of dopamine during critical periods of development acting, perhaps, in concert with PCB-induced changes in cholinergic receptor function [6].
  • Postnatal reflexes, motor activity and male reproductive performance were evaluated in rat offspring after exposure to PCB 118 [7].
  • Maximal electroshock seizure tests on postweaning rats showed that perinatal PCB exposure decreased seizure severity of both the 2.5 and 26 ppm groups as indicated by increased durations of forelimb and hindlimb flexion and decreased duration of hindlimb extension [8].

High impact information on Pc


Chemical compound and disease context of Pc


Biological context of Pc


Anatomical context of Pc


Associations of Pc with chemical compounds

  • Thus, our results suggest that PC and the pyruvate shuttles are increased in ZF islets, and this accounts for glucose mitochondrial metabolism being increased when pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is reduced [16].
  • Inhibition of PC by 5 mm phenylacetic acid markedly lowered glucose-induced insulin secretion in ZF and ZL islets [16].
  • Non-invasive intratracheal inoculation of cryopreserved parasites into Pc- and virus-free rats immunosuppressed by weekly injections of methylprednisolone are key features of the model that result in the development of consistent heavy Pc infections and very few secondary infections by bacteria and fungi [24].
  • Equations to calculate the relative rates of pyruvate carboxylase (y), and the equilibration of oxaloacetate with fumarate from the isotopomer distribution are derived [25].
  • In summary, a simple model is presented to examine carbon flux from lactate via the pyruvate carboxylase and tricarboxylic acid pathways during gluconeogenesis [26].

Regulatory relationships of Pc


Other interactions of Pc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pc


  1. Structural properties of pyruvate carboxylases from chicken liver and other sources. Barden, R.E., Taylor, B.L., Isoashi, F., Frey, W.H., Zander, G., Lee, J.C., Utter, M.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  2. Activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes and glycogen synthase in rat and human livers, hepatomas, and hepatoma cell cultures. Hammond, K.D., Balinsky, D. Cancer Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of rat pyruvate carboxylase gene expression by alternate promoters during development, in genetically obese rats and in insulin-secreting cells. Multiple transcripts with 5'-end heterogeneity modulate translation. Jitrapakdee, S., Gong, Q., MacDonald, M.J., Wallace, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Low mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in pancreatic islets of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. MacDonald, M.J., Tang, J., Polonsky, K.S. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. S-acetonyl-CoA. A nonreactive analog of acetyl-CoA. Rubenstein, P., Dryer, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure of the laboratory rat to 2,4,2',4'- and 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl on dopamine function. Seegal, R.F., Brosch, K.O., Okoniewski, R.J. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. In utero exposure to low-dose 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) impairs male fertility and alters neurobehavior in rat offspring. Kuriyama, S.N., Chahoud, I. Toxicology (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Neurobehavioral and somatic effects of perinatal PCB exposure in rats. Overmann, S.R., Kostas, J., Wilson, L.R., Shain, W., Bush, B. Environmental research. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine as an alternative to the synthesis of mixed hybridization probes for the detection of specific gene sequences. Habener, J.F., Vo, C.D., Le, D.B., Gryan, G.P., Ercolani, L., Wang, A.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Aging of the liver: age-associated mitochondrial damage in intact hepatocytes. Sastre, J., Pallardó, F.V., Plá, R., Pellín, A., Juan, G., O'Connor, J.E., Estrela, J.M., Miquel, J., Viña, J. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Mammalian pyruvate carboxylase: effect of biotin on the synthesis and translocation of apo-enzyme into 3T3-L adipocyte mitochondria. Ahmad, P.M., Ahmad, F. FASEB J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Brain pyruvate carboxylase and the pathophysiology of biotin-dependent diseases. Sander, J.E., Packman, S., Townsend, J.J. Neurology (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus on the turnover of rat liver pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Weinberg, M.B., Utter, M.F. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of metyrapone on microsomal-dependent Salmonella mutagenesis. Studies with chloroallyl ethers and model compounds. Distlerath, L.M., Loper, J.C., Tabor, M.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxicity of hydroxylated and quinoid PCB metabolites: inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication and activation of aryl hydrocarbon and estrogen receptors in hepatic and mammary cells. Machala, M., Bláha, L., Lehmler, H.J., Plísková, M., Májková, Z., Kapplová, P., Sovadinová, I., Vondrácek, J., Malmberg, T., Robertson, L.W. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. beta-Cell adaptation to insulin resistance. Increased pyruvate carboxylase and malate-pyruvate shuttle activity in islets of nondiabetic Zucker fatty rats. Liu, Y.Q., Jetton, T.L., Leahy, J.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Cloning, sequencing and expression of rat liver pyruvate carboxylase. Jitrapakdee, S., Booker, G.W., Cassady, A.I., Wallace, J.C. Biochem. J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The sequence of the rat pyruvate carboxylase-encoding cDNA. Lehn, D.A., Moran, S.M., MacDonald, M.J. Gene (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. A rapid purification method for rat liver pyruvate carboxylase and amino acid sequence analyses of NH2-terminal and biotin peptide. Thampy, K.G., Huang, W.Y., Wakil, S.J. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Glucose-fatty acid cycle to inhibit glucose utilization and oxidation is not operative in fatty acid-cultured islets. Liu, Y.Q., Tornheim, K., Leahy, J.L. Diabetes (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Normalization by insulin treatment of low mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in pancreatic islets of the GK rat. MacDonald, M.J., Efendić, S., Ostenson, C.G. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Effect of thyroid hormone on the turnover of rat liver pyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Weinberg, M.B., Utter, M.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of insulin on CO2 fixation in adipose tissue. Evidence for regulation of pyruvate transport. Rahman, R., O'Rourke, F., Jungas, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. An improved rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: induced infections in Pneumocystis-free animals. Boylan, C.J., Current, W.L. J. Protozool. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Studies of glycogen synthesis and the Krebs cycle by mass isotopomer analysis with [U-13C]glucose in rats. Katz, J., Lee, W.N., Wals, P.A., Bergner, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Model to examine pathways of carbon flux from lactate to glucose at the first branch point in gluconeogenesis. Blackard, W.G., Clore, J.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Different types of mitochondria in parenchymal and non-parenchymal rat-liver cells. Van Berkel, T.J., Kruijt, J.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of the matrix calcium level in the enhancement of mitochondrial pyruvate carboxylation by glucagon pretreatment. Walajtys-Rhode, E., Zapatero, J., Moehren, G., Hoek, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Modeling of liver citric acid cycle and gluconeogenesis based on 13C mass isotopomer distribution analysis of intermediates. Fernandez, C.A., Des Rosiers, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase. Sites of pretranslational regulation by glucose of glucose-induced insulin release in pancreatic islets. MacDonald, M.J., Kaysen, J.H., Moran, S.M., Pomije, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Time-dependence of the contribution of pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase to rat brain glutamine labelling from [1-(13) C]glucose metabolism. Merle, M., Bouzier-Sore, A.K., Canioni, P. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Interference by pyruvate carboxylase in the measurement of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in crude liver preparations. Davies, D.R., Van Schaftingen, E., Hers, H.G. Biochem. J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  33. Resolution of rat mitochondrial matrix proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Henslee, J.G., Srere, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  34. The effect of dose and enzyme inducers on the metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in rats. Watkins, B.E., Suzuki, M., Wallin, H., Wakabayashi, K., Alexander, J., Vanderlaan, M., Sugimura, T., Esumi, H. Carcinogenesis (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Rat liver pyruvate carboxylase. Purification, detection and quantification of apo and holo forms by immuno-blotting and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ahmad, F., Ahmad, P.M., Mendez, A. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  36. Distribution of pyruvate carboxylase along the rat nephron: an immunological and enzymatic study. Salto, R., Oliver, J., del Mar Sola, M., Vargas, A.M. Kidney Int. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of some xenobiotics on ascorbic acid metabolism in rats. Horio, F., Yoshida, A. J. Nutr. (1982) [Pubmed]
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