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Gene Review

Prkcb  -  protein kinase C, beta

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PKC-B, PKC-beta, Pkcb, Prkcb1, Protein kinase C beta type
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Disease relevance of Prkcb1


High impact information on Prkcb1


Chemical compound and disease context of Prkcb1


Biological context of Prkcb1

  • Extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators inhibited phosphorylation of PKCalpha and PKCbeta [13].
  • Induction of PKCbetaII is dependent upon catalytically active PKCbetaII and does not appear to involve changes in alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene [1].
  • Here we show that RIE/PKCbetaII cells acquire an invasive phenotype that is blocked by the PKCbeta inhibitor LY379196 [14].
  • PKCbeta promoter activity and PKCbetaII mRNA expression in HCT116 cells are inhibited by the selective PKCbeta inhibitor LY317615 and by U0126, demonstrating autoregulation of PKCbetaII expression [1].
  • These results indicate that PKCbeta may play an important role in glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance [15].

Anatomical context of Prkcb1


Associations of Prkcb1 with chemical compounds

  • Several PKCs are activated, and PKCbeta regulates phosphorylation of serine in MEKK1 [13].
  • Here we demonstrate that nullizygous PKCbeta (PKCbetaKO) mice are highly resistant to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic lesions, aberrant crypt foci [1].
  • A highly specific PKC beta inhibitor, LY379196, blocked dopamine efflux that was stimulated by either amphetamine or the PKC activator, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [18].
  • Furthermore, these results imply that PKC beta II may be one of the DAG sensitive isoforms involved in glucose transport [19].
  • To define the role of autophosphorylation we constructed three site-directed mutants of PKC beta 1 isozyme in which each pair of phosphorylatable residues is changed to alanine [20].

Enzymatic interactions of Prkcb1

  • Cytosolic PKC-dependent histone-phosphorylating enzyme activity and PKC-beta immunoreactivity of both adipocytes and soleus muscles increased progressively with age (or weight) in rats weighing less than 400 g [21].

Regulatory relationships of Prkcb1

  • Our data were as follows: (a) CRH-induced rapid phosphorylation of conventional PKCalpha and PKCbeta, accompanied by parallel increase of their concentration within nucleus [22].
  • These results support an involvement of PKC-beta in the PMA-induced activation of the arachidonic acid cascade and in superoxide formation and imply an involvement of PKC-delta in zymosan-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and PGE2 formation [23].
  • The alpha C1A-C1B domain also activated conventional PKC beta I, -beta II, and -gamma isoforms, but not novel PKC delta or -epsilon [24].

Other interactions of Prkcb1

  • 4. In the same brains and for all combined treatments, there were significant positive correlations between the density of RACK1 and those of PKC-alpha (r=0.85, n = 35) and PKC-beta (r=0.75, n=32) [25].
  • These observations demonstrate that PKCbeta-MARCKS signaling may be a general mechanism for the stimulation of vesicular trafficking in brain neurons [26].
  • Treatment with PKC-beta isoform-specific inhibitor (LY333531) or insulin normalized retinal ET-1 and PDGF-B expression [27].
  • This study investigated the relation between the polyol pathway, PKC-beta, ROS, JAK2, and Ang II in the development of diabetic macroangiopathy [28].
  • A selective antagonist of PKC-beta, LY379196, was used to determine the role of the PKC-beta isozyme in the expression of IL-6 in UMR-106 rat osteoblastic cells and in bone resorption in fetal rat limb bone organ cultures [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prkcb1

  • The localisation and immunochemical identification of 3 different forms of protein kinase C (PKC-alpha, PKC-beta and PKC-gamma) in retinas of different species were analysed by immunohistochemistry and SDS-PAGE-Western blotting, respectively [5].
  • However, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting experiments showed that the PKC-beta isoenzyme is absent from the fish retina but present in the rat retina [5].
  • In this study, we used real-time confocal microscopy to search for evidence that vesicular trafficking in neurons requires the activation of protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta) and the myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) signaling pathway [26].
  • By immunoblotting studies, D-alpha-tocopherol treatment was able to reduce the enhancement of PKC beta II isoform in the membraneous fraction isolated from ASMCs [30].
  • Previous studies indicated that rat basophilic RBL-2H3 cells contained the Ca(2+)-dependent alpha and beta and the Ca(2+)-independent delta, epsilon, and zeta isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC); of these, PKC beta and delta were the most potent transducers of signals for exocytosis in antigen-stimulated permeabilized cells [31].


  1. Protein kinase CbetaII regulates its own expression in rat intestinal epithelial cells and the colonic epithelium in vivo. Liu, Y., Su, W., Thompson, E.A., Leitges, M., Murray, N.R., Fields, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Protein kinase C beta inhibition attenuates the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy in the presence of continued hypertension. Kelly, D.J., Zhang, Y., Hepper, C., Gow, R.M., Jaworski, K., Kemp, B.E., Wilkinson-Berka, J.L., Gilbert, R.E. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Changes in protein kinase C isozymes in the rat hippocampus following transient hypoxia. Yamaoka, Y., Shimohama, S., Kimura, J., Fukunaga, R., Taniguchi, T. Neurosci. Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Alterations in brain protein kinase C after experimental brain injury. Padmaperuma, B., Mark, R., Dhillon, H.S., Mattson, M.P., Prasad, M.R. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The occurrence of three isoenzymes of protein kinase C (alpha, beta and gamma) in retinas of different species. Osborne, N.N., Barnett, N.L., Morris, N.J., Huang, F.L. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Changes in protein kinase C isoforms in association with vascular hyporeactivity in cirrhotic rat aortas. Tazi, K.A., Moreau, R., Heller, J., Poirel, O., Lebrec, D. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of angiotensin II-induced neuromodulation by MARCKS in brain neurons. Lu, D., Yang, H., Lenox, R.H., Raizada, M.K. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Tissue and cellular distribution of the extended family of protein kinase C isoenzymes. Wetsel, W.C., Khan, W.A., Merchenthaler, I., Rivera, H., Halpern, A.E., Phung, H.M., Negro-Vilar, A., Hannun, Y.A. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Protein kinases C-beta and C-epsilon link the mast cell high-affinity receptor for IgE to the expression of c-fos and c-jun. Razin, E., Szallasi, Z., Kazanietz, M.G., Blumberg, P.M., Rivera, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Tissue angiotensin II during progression or ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertensive rats; differential effects on PKC epsilon and PKC beta. Inagaki, K., Iwanaga, Y., Sarai, N., Onozawa, Y., Takenaka, H., Mochly-Rosen, D., Kihara, Y. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Hypoxia induces activation of a N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor-protein kinase C pathway in the dorsocaudal brainstem of the conscious rat. Simakajornboon, N., Gozal, E., Gozal, Y.M., Gozal, D. Neurosci. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Protein kinase C beta isoenzymes in diabetic kidneys and their relation to nephroprotective actions of the ACE inhibitor lisinopril. Pfaff, I.L., Vallon, V. Kidney Blood Press. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Ca2+- and Protein Kinase C-dependent Signaling Pathway for Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B Activation, Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase Expression, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} Production in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Rat Peritoneal Macrophages. Zhou, X., Yang, W., Li, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Protein kinase C (PKC) betaII induces cell invasion through a Ras/Mek-, PKC iota/Rac 1-dependent signaling pathway. Zhang, J., Anastasiadis, P.Z., Liu, Y., Thompson, E.A., Fields, A.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Inhibition of PKCbeta improves glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in rat adipocytes. Kawai, Y., Ishizuka, T., Kajita, K., Miura, A., Ishizawa, M., Natsume, Y., Uno, Y., Morita, H., Yasuda, K. IUBMB Life (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Induction and subcellular localization of protein kinase C isozymes following renal ischemia. Padanilam, B.J. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Decreased expression of protein kinase-C alpha, beta, and epsilon in soleus muscle of Zucker obese (fa/fa) rats. Cooper, D.R., Watson, J.E., Dao, M.L. Endocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Regulation of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux by protein kinase C beta. Johnson, L.A., Guptaroy, B., Lund, D., Shamban, S., Gnegy, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence for the involvement of a phospholipase C--protein kinase C signaling pathway in insulin stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Wright, D.C., Fick, C.A., Olesen, J.B., Craig, B.W. Life Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of site-specific mutants altered at protein kinase C beta 1 isozyme autophosphorylation sites. Zhang, J., Wang, L., Petrin, J., Bishop, W.R., Bond, R.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential effect of aging on protein kinase C activity in rat adipocytes and soleus muscle. Ishizuka, T., Yamamoto, M., Kajita, K., Yasuda, K., Miura, K., Hernandez, H., Farese, R.V. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Corticotropin-releasing hormone activates protein kinase C in an isoenzyme-specific manner. Dermitzaki, E., Tsatsanis, C., Charalampopoulos, I., Androulidaki, A., Alexaki, V.I., Castanas, E., Gravanis, A., Margioris, A.N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Different roles of protein kinase C-beta and -delta in arachidonic acid cascade, superoxide formation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Duyster, J., Schwende, H., Fitzke, E., Hidaka, H., Dieter, P. Biochem. J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Regulation of PKC alpha activity by C1-C2 domain interactions. Slater, S.J., Seiz, J.L., Cook, A.C., Buzas, C.J., Malinowski, S.A., Kershner, J.L., Stagliano, B.A., Stubbs, C.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Parallel modulation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 and protein kinase C-alpha and beta isoforms in brains of morphine-treated rats. Escribá, P.V., García-Sevilla, J.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Obligatory role of protein kinase Cbeta and MARCKS in vesicular trafficking in living neurons. Yang, H., Wang, X., Sumners, C., Raizada, M.K. Hypertension (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Role of protein kinase C on the expression of platelet-derived growth factor and endothelin-1 in the retina of diabetic rats and cultured retinal capillary pericytes. Yokota, T., Ma, R.C., Park, J.Y., Isshiki, K., Sotiropoulos, K.B., Rauniyar, R.K., Bornfeldt, K.E., King, G.L. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. High glucose augments the angiotensin II-induced activation of JAK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells via the polyol pathway. Shaw, S., Wang, X., Redd, H., Alexander, G.D., Isales, C.M., Marrero, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Involvement of PKC-beta in PTH, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta effects on IL-6 promoter in osteoblastic cells and on PTH-stimulated bone resorption. Radeff, J.M., Nagy, Z., Stern, P.H. Exp. Cell Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Normalization of diacylglycerol-protein kinase C activation by vitamin E in aorta of diabetic rats and cultured rat smooth muscle cells exposed to elevated glucose levels. Kunisaki, M., Bursell, S.E., Umeda, F., Nawata, H., King, G.L. Diabetes (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Different isozymes of protein kinase C mediate feedback inhibition of phospholipase C and stimulatory signals for exocytosis in rat RBL-2H3 cells. Ozawa, K., Yamada, K., Kazanietz, M.G., Blumberg, P.M., Beaven, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
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