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Gene Review

PDYN  -  prodynorphin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ADCA, Beta-neoendorphin-dynorphin, PENKB, Preprodynorphin, Proenkephalin-B, ...
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Disease relevance of PDYN


Psychiatry related information on PDYN


High impact information on PDYN


Chemical compound and disease context of PDYN


Biological context of PDYN


Anatomical context of PDYN

  • Pre-PDYN message is especially abundant in neurons of the tuberal and mammillary regions, with a distinct population of labeled cells in the premammillary nucleus and dorsal posterior hypothalamus [17].
  • In situ hybridization analysis revealed that levels of the PDYN mRNA were significantly increased in the caudate/putamen, to the same extent in rats self-administering cocaine as in animals receiving noncontingent injections of the drug at the same frequency and dosage [18].
  • No changes in the expression of the PDYN gene were detected in the nucleus accumbens or in the central nucleus of amygdala [18].
  • In the present study, effects of response-dependent (contingent) and response-independent (noncontingent) cocaine administration on the PENK and PDYN gene expression in the rat forebrain have been directly compared using the "yoked" self-administration procedure [18].
  • In contrast to neurons that express pre-POMC, neurons expressing pre-PDYN and pre-PENK are more widely represented throughout the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic structures [17].

Associations of PDYN with chemical compounds

  • However, we observed a significant interactive effect with the receptor 3 of dopamine gene (DRD3); in particular, the frequency of subjects carrying PDYN allele 3 being also homozygotes for DRD3 Gly allele (of Ser9Gly polymorphism) was significantly greater in patients than controls [19].
  • We conclude that PDYN gene polymorphism alone does not alter the risk for schizophrenia but, by an epistatic interaction with the Gly allele of DRD3 gene, may contribute to the susceptibility to this disorder [19].
  • Linkage relationships of human arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II and oxytocin-neurophysin-I to prodynorphin and other loci on chromosome 20 [16].
  • Proenkephalin B-derived opioid peptides, such as dynorphin1-17, dynorphin1-8, dynorphin B, alpha-neo-endorphin and beta-neo-endorphin in the human hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract were quantitated and characterized by the combined use of various radioimmunoassays, gel filtration, high performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic cleavage [20].
  • Most interestingly, activation of U-937 cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to a decrease in PDYN mRNA levels [21].

Regulatory relationships of PDYN

  • In comparison to stimulated control hamsters, a significantly lower prodynorphin expression was found in several limbic areas of stimulated mutant hamsters during the manifestation of dystonia, while preproenkephalin mRNA was significantly lower in the anterior and dorsal striatal subregions and in nucleus accumbens [22].

Other interactions of PDYN


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PDYN


  1. Increased striatal pre-proenkephalin B expression is associated with dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. Henry, B., Duty, S., Fox, S.H., Crossman, A.R., Brotchie, J.M. Exp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification and characterization of opioid-binding sites present in the Ishikawa human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line. Hatzoglou, A., Gravanis, A., Margioris, A.N., Zoumakis, E., Castanas, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells synthesize dynorphin. Its secretion is modulated by nicotine and nerve growth factor. Margioris, A.N., Markogiannakis, E., Makrigiannakis, A., Gravanis, A. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity following tissue injury and inflammation. Dubner, R., Ruda, M.A. Trends Neurosci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. DREAM-alphaCREM interaction via leucine-charged domains derepresses downstream regulatory element-dependent transcription. Ledo, F., Carrión, A.M., Link, W.A., Mellström, B., Naranjo, J.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Subjects with major depression or bipolar disorder show reduction of prodynorphin mRNA expression in discrete nuclei of the amygdaloid complex. Hurd, Y.L. Mol. Psychiatry (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. An allelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter alters stimulus-induced expression. Zimprich, A., Kraus, J., Wöltje, M., Mayer, P., Rauch, E., Höllt, V. J. Neurochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Opioid peptides in Huntington's disease: alterations in prodynorphin and proenkephalin system. Seizinger, B.R., Liebisch, D.C., Kish, S.J., Arendt, R.M., Hornykiewicz, O., Herz, A. Brain Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Mu opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in association with striatal opioid neuropeptide gene expression in heroin abusers. Drakenberg, K., Nikoshkov, A., Horváth, M.C., Fagergren, P., Gharibyan, A., Saarelainen, K., Rahman, S., Nylander, I., Bakalkin, G., Rajs, J., Keller, E., Hurd, Y.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. No DREAM, No pain. Closing the spinal gate. Costigan, M., Woolf, C.J. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A role for hippocampal opioids in long-term functional plasticity. Morris, B.J., Johnston, H.M. Trends Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular mechanisms of pain: serotonin1A receptor agonists trigger transactivation by c-fos of the prodynorphin gene in spinal cord neurons. Lucas, J.J., Mellström, B., Colado, M.I., Naranjo, J.R. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Chromosomal localization of the human proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes. Litt, M., Buroker, N.E., Kondoleon, S., Douglass, J., Liston, D., Sheehy, R., Magenis, R.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of antisense FosB and CREB on the expression of prodynorphin gene in rats with levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Chen, Z., Guan, Q., Cao, X., Xu, Y., Wang, L., Sun, S. J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. A functional polymorphism in the prodynorphin gene promotor is associated with temporal lobe epilepsy. Stögmann, E., Zimprich, A., Baumgartner, C., Aull-Watschinger, S., Höllt, V., Zimprich, F. Ann. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Linkage relationships of human arginine vasopressin-neurophysin-II and oxytocin-neurophysin-I to prodynorphin and other loci on chromosome 20. Summar, M.L., Phillips, J.A., Battey, J., Castiglione, C.M., Kidd, K.K., Maness, K.J., Weiffenbach, B., Gravius, T.C. Mol. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Opioid precursor gene expression in the human hypothalamus. Sukhov, R.R., Walker, L.C., Rance, N.E., Price, D.L., Young, W.S. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Contingency does not contribute to the effects of cocaine self-administration on prodynorphin and proenkephalin gene expression in the rat forebrain. Ziółkowska, B., Stefański, R., Mierzejewski, P., Zapart, G., Kostowski, W., Przewłocki, R. Brain Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Allelic variation in the human prodynorphin gene promoter and schizophrenia. Ventriglia, M., Bocchio Chiavetto, L., Bonvicini, C., Tura, G.B., Bignotti, S., Racagni, G., Gennarelli, M. Neuropsychobiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of proenkephalin B-derived opioid peptides in the human hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal axis. Arendt, R.M., Seizinger, B.R., Pasi, A., Mehraein, P., Herz, A. Brain Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. The expression of prodynorphin gene is down-regulated by activation with lipopolysaccharide in U-937 macrophage cells. Sun, B., Tipton, C.M., Bidlack, J.M. J. Neuroimmunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Altered expression of preproenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNA in a genetic model of paroxysmal dystonia. Nobrega, J.N., Parkes, J.H., Wong, P., Raymond, R., Richter, A. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction between steroid hormones and endometrial opioids. Gravanis, A., Makrigiannakis, A., Stournaras, C., Margioris, A.N. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. A functional prodynorphin promoter polymorphism and opioid dependence. Ray, R., Doyle, G.A., Crowley, J.J., Buono, R.J., Oslin, D.W., Patkar, A.A., Mannelli, P., DeMaria, P.A., O'Brien, C.P., Berrettini, W.H. Psychiatr. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Association of the kappa-opioid system with alcohol dependence. Xuei, X., Dick, D., Flury-Wetherill, L., Tian, H.J., Agrawal, A., Bierut, L., Goate, A., Bucholz, K., Schuckit, M., Nurnberger, J., Tischfield, J., Kuperman, S., Porjesz, B., Begleiter, H., Foroud, T., Edenberg, H.J. Mol. Psychiatry (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Prodynorphin gene expression relates to NF-kappa B factors. Bakalkin, G., Yakovleva, T., Terenius, L. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Potentially functional polymorphism in the promoter region of prodynorphin gene may be associated with protection against cocaine dependence or abuse. Chen, A.C., LaForge, K.S., Ho, A., McHugh, P.F., Kellogg, S., Bell, K., Schluger, R.P., Leal, S.M., Kreek, M.J. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Prodynorphin storage and processing in axon terminals and dendrites. Yakovleva, T., Bazov, I., Cebers, G., Marinova, Z., Hara, Y., Ahmed, A., Vlaskovska, M., Johansson, B., Hochgeschwender, U., Singh, I.N., Bruce-Keller, A.J., Hurd, Y.L., Kaneko, T., Terenius, L., Ekstr??m, T.J., Hauser, K.F., Pickel, V.M., Bakalkin, G. FASEB J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of hypertonic saline infusion on the level of immunoreactive dynorphin in extracted human plasma. Margioris, A.N., Brockmann, G., Kalogeras, K.T., Fjellestad-Paulsen, A., Stratakis, C.A., Vamvakopoulos, N., Chrousos, G.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Increased enkephalin and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of seizure sensitive Mongolian gerbils. Lee, R.J., Hong, J.S., McGinty, J.F., Lomax, P. Brain Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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