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Gene Review

PNMT  -  phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Noradrenaline N-methyltransferase, PENT, PNMTase, Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase
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Disease relevance of PNMT


Psychiatry related information on PNMT


High impact information on PNMT


Chemical compound and disease context of PNMT


Biological context of PNMT


Anatomical context of PNMT

  • Thus, we hypothesized that replacement of the sulfonamide -NH- with a methylene group could result in compounds that would retain potency at PNMT and that would have increased lipophilicity, thus increasing the likelihood they will cross the blood brain barrier [15].
  • Chromaffin cells from all three species reacted for TH, DBH and PNMT in co-culture and were histo-fluorescent [16].
  • The neuroblasts of the ganglia showed intense peroxidase immunoreactivity for TH, moderate reaction to DBH, and no reaction to PNMT [17].
  • With anti-PNMT antibody, electively in nucleus gelatinosus (NG), a subnucleus of nucleus tractus solitarius, an absence of immunoreactivity was noticed [3].
  • Epinephrine synthesis was similar in keratinocytes from uninvolved epidermis and controls, but cells from involved skin had 6.5-fold less epinephrine than controls, indicative of low phenylehtanolamine-N-methyl transferase (PNMT) activity [18].

Associations of PNMT with chemical compounds

  • Sulfone 24 (hPNMT Ki = 1.3 microM) is the most potent compound in this series and is quite selective for PNMT versus the alpha2-adrenoceptor, but 24 is less potent than the corresponding sulfonamide, 16 (hPNMT Ki = 0.13 microM) [15].
  • Early neonatal melatonin administration increased MAO B and PNMT activities on day 45 [12].
  • Control animals showed very few (5.5%) PNMT/Fos co-localized neurons in the C1 adrenergic cell group [19].
  • PNMT with norepinephrine as substrate was also significantly decreased in parkinsonian brains [20].
  • Low, but detectable, phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) activity was observed in PC12 cells, and dexamethasone increased its activity 5.6-fold at 72 h [21].

Regulatory relationships of PNMT

  • The mechanism by which nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates adrenergic expression was examined in PC-12 cells transfected with a rat phenylethanolamine N-methyl-transferase (PNMT) promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct pGL3RP893 [22].

Other interactions of PNMT


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PNMT


  1. Expression of mRNA coding for four catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in human adrenal pheochromocytomas. Isobe, K., Nakai, T., Yukimasa, N., Nanmoku, T., Takekoshi, K., Nomura, F. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Increase in noradrenaline-synthesizing enzyme activity in medulla oblongata in Parkinson's disease. Kopp, N., Denoroy, L., Tommasi, M., Gay, N., Chazot, G., Renaud, B. Acta Neuropathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Absence of adrenergic neurons in nucleus tractus solitarius in sudden infant death syndrome. Kopp, N., Chigr, F., Denoroy, L., Gilly, R., Jordan, D. Neuropediatrics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-like immunoreactivity in psoriasis. An immunohistochemical study on catecholamine synthesizing enzymes and neuropeptides of the skin. Johansson, O., Olsson, A., Enhamre, A., Hammar, H., Goldstein, M. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in pheochromocytomas from patients with von hippel-lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Huynh, T.T., Pacak, K., Wong, D.L., Linehan, W.M., Goldstein, D.S., Elkahloun, A.G., Munson, P.J., Eisenhofer, G. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Presumptive adrenergic neurons containing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase immunoreactivity in the medulla oblongata of neonatal swine. Ruggiero, D.A., Anwar, M., Gootman, P.M. Brain Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity is decreased in Alzheimer's disease brains. Burke, W.J., Chung, H.D., Nakra, B.R., Grossberg, G.T., Joh, T.H. Ann. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Adrenaline-forming enzyme in brainstem: elevation in genetic and experimental hypertension. Saavedra, J.M., Grobecker, H., Axelrod, J. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Immortalized retinal neurons derived from SV40 T-antigen-induced tumors in transgenic mice. Hammang, J.P., Baetge, E.E., Behringer, R.R., Brinster, R.L., Palmiter, R.D., Messing, A. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-containing neurons in the limbic system of the young rat. Mezey, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Enhanced expression of mRNA coding for the adrenaline-synthesizing enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase in adrenaline-secreting pheochromocytomas. Isobe, K., Nakai, T., Yashiro, T., Nanmoku, T., Yukimasa, N., Ikezawa, T., Suzuki, E., Takekoshi, K., Nomura, F. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Serum prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels and the activities of hypothalamic monoamine oxidase A and B and phenylethanolamine-N-methyl transferase are changed during sexual maturation in male rats treated neonatally with melatonin. Moreno, M.L., Villanúa, M.A., Esquifino, A.I. J. Pineal Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA in rat hypothalamus and cerebellum. Andreassi, J.L., Eggleston, W.B., Fu, G., Stewart, J.K. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Localization and regulation of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase gene expression in the heart of rats and mice during stress. Kvetnansky, R., Micutkova, L., Kubovcakova, L., Sabban, E.L., Palkovits, M., Krizanova, O. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparison of the binding of 3-fluoromethyl-7-sulfonyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines with their isosteric sulfonamides to the active site of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Grunewald, G.L., Seim, M.R., Regier, R.C., Martin, J.L., Gee, C.L., Drinkwater, N., Criscione, K.R. J. Med. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Rodent and primate adrenal medullary cells in vitro: phenotypic plasticity in response to coculture with C6 glioma cells or NGF. Notter, M.F., Hansen, J.T., Okawara, S., Gash, D.M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunohistochemical localization of the catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, substance P and enkephalin in the human fetal sympathetic ganglion. Hervonen, A., Pickel, V.M., Joh, T.H., Reis, D.J., Linnoila, I., Miller, R.J. Cell Tissue Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased monoamine oxidase A activity in the epidermis of patients with vitiligo. Schallreuter, K.U., Wood, J.M., Pittelkow, M.R., Buttner, G., Swanson, N., Korner, C., Ehrke, C. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Flurothyl-induced seizures in rats activate Fos in brainstem catecholaminergic neurons. Silveira, D.C., Schachter, S.C., Schomer, D.L., Holmes, G.L. Epilepsy Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Catecholamine-related enzymes and the biopterin cofactor in Parkinson's disease and related extrapyramidal diseases. Nagatsu, T., Yamaguchi, T., Rahman, M.K., Trocewicz, J., Oka, K., Hirata, Y., Nagatsu, I., Narabayashi, H., Kondo, T., Iizuka, R. Advances in neurology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Parallel up-regulation of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes by dexamethasone in PC12 cells. Kim, K.T., Park, D.H., Joh, T.H. J. Neurochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Nerve growth factor regulates adrenergic expression. Tai, T.C., Wong-Faull, D.C., Claycomb, R., Wong, D.L. Mol. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase activity determines the epinephrine concentration of pheochromocytomas. Feldman, J.M. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Altered catecholamine synthesis and degradation in the epidermis of patients with atopic eczema. Schallreuter, K.U., Pittelkow, M.R., Swanson, N.N., Beazley, W.D., Körner, C., Ehrke, C., Büttner, G. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Methods of plasma catecholamine measurement including radioimmunoassay. Raum, W.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Difficulties in comparing catecholamine-related enzymes from the brains of schizophrenics and controls. Wyatt, R.J., Erdelyi, E., Schwartz, M., Herman, M., Barchas, J.D. Biol. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase expression in mouse thymus and spleen. Warthan, M.D., Freeman, J.G., Loesser, K.E., Lewis, C.W., Hong, M., Conway, C.M., Stewart, J.K. Brain Behav. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning of cDNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, the enzyme for epinephrine biosynthesis. Kaneda, N., Ichinose, H., Kobayashi, K., Oka, K., Kishi, F., Nakazawa, A., Kurosawa, Y., Fujita, K., Nagatsu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Localization and characterization of phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase in the brain of various mammalian species. Lew, J.Y., Matsumoto, Y., Pearson, J., Goldstein, M., Hökfelt, T., Fuxe, K. Brain Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
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