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Gene Review

PSG5  -  pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 5

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FL-NCA-3, Fetal liver non-specific cross-reactive antigen 3, PS-beta-G-5, PSBG-5, PSG, ...
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Disease relevance of PSG5


Psychiatry related information on PSG5

  • When comparing a 16-channel PSG montage with that of a seven-channel cardiorespiratory montage, we found that 84% of all movement/arousals could be detected using the abbreviated montage [6].
  • Although the 1995 practice parameters paper determined that actigraphy was not appropriate for the diagnosis of sleep disorders, more recent studies suggest that for some disorders, actigraphy may be more practical than PSG [7].
  • Few sleep laboratories have PSG equipment that allows for the recording of 18 channels of EEG without compromising the ability to detect sleep apnea, periodic limb movements, and parasomnias [8].
  • Each PSG recording was blindly scored using conventional scoring criteria, and resulting measures of total sleep period, total sleep time, sleep efficiency percent, stage 1 time, slow-wave sleep time, and rapid eye movement latency were used to compare the two subject groups within each PSG recording site (i.e. lab and home) [9].
  • Effects of reviewing DATATOP videotapes on IQ and MMPI in PSG coordinators and investigators, or, whatever happened to Tony Lang [10]?

High impact information on PSG5


Biological context of PSG5

  • We show in transient transfection experiments performed in HeLa, COS-7 and JEG-3 cells, that such mutation completely abolished the transcriptional activity of the PSG5 promoter, independently of the cell type [1].
  • We have estimated the size of the PSG subfamily by identification of N-domain exons from isolated genomic clones and from total genomic DNA through PCR amplification and DNA sequence determination [16].
  • Here we report the cloning of four cDNAs coding for different members of the PSG family from a human fetal liver cDNA library [17].
  • 2. Using a high-resolution restriction fragment fingerprinting technique, we have assembled 256 cosmids from the PSG region into a single 700-kb contig [18].
  • The recovery of platelet count after bone marrow transplant was much faster in mice receiving 1 microg PSG/day than in animals in any other group [19].

Anatomical context of PSG5

  • Our results indicate that the cis-acting and trans-acting elements analyzed are indispensable to support PSG5 promoter activity in cell lines which do or do not produce PSG [1].
  • Both type I and type II transcripts of the PSG genes were detected in blood cells with the exception of type II transcript of PSG5 and PSG11 which were only found in the placenta [20].
  • The human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) family consists of eleven closely related molecules mainly synthesized by placental syncytiotrophoblasts and whose function(s) are unknown [21].
  • The PSG-5', PSG93-specific, PSG16/PSG93-3', and PSG95-3' probes, which identify the majority of PS beta G mRNAs, hybridized with three PS beta G mRNAs of 2.3, 2.2, and 1.7 kilobases from placental fibroblasts [22].
  • Trace amounts of PSG transcripts could be detected in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), monocytes and B lymphocytes while T lymphocytes always contained the highest level of transcript [20].

Associations of PSG5 with chemical compounds

  • Moreover, PSG expression was greatly induced by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BudR), which selectively increased synthesis of PSGs of 72 and 54 kDa [23].
  • The members of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene family have a characteristic N-terminal domain that is homologous to the immunoglobulin variable region [16].
  • Sodium butyrate, an inducer of PSG synthesis, greatly stimulated expression of all PSG1-I-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene constructs [24].
  • PSG9 and PSG10 are representatives of two distinct classes of PSG protein that have N-termini with or without the Arg-Gly-Asp motif implicated in adhesion [25].
  • From the PSG antiserum, antibodies can be isolated that differentially bind to V-like PSG domains which differ by eight non-conservative amino acid substitutions, three of which are clustered in a position corresponding to the CDR III of immunoglobulin V region domains [26].

Physical interactions of PSG5


Other interactions of PSG5

  • BudR stimulated the expression of all PSG transcripts except PSG4 [23].
  • Ribonuclease protection analysis showed that butyrate increased the PS beta G mRNAs containing the PSG-5' or PSG93-specific sequence to approximately 20% of human placental levels [22].
  • To characterize PSG promoter activity, we constructed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes containing -809 to -44 basepairs up-stream of the translational start site of the PSG6 gene [28].
  • We describe the isolation and characterization of two additional PSG cDNAs, PSG9 and PSG10, whose transcripts are largely expressed in placental tissue and to a lesser extent in some other cell types, including myeloid cells differentiated to granulocytes [25].
  • Seven novel genes (CGM12 to CGM18) were found in the PSG region [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PSG5


  1. Analyses of cis-acting and trans-acting elements that are crucial to sustain pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene expression in different cell types. Koritschoner, N.P., Panzetta-Dutari, G.M., Bocco, J.L., Dumur, C.I., Flury, A., Patrito, L.C. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Isolation and characterization of a human amnion epithelial cell line that expresses the pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein gene. Plouzek, C.A., Chou, J.Y. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Polysomnography early after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty as a predictor of late postoperative results. Sanders, M.H., Costantino, J.P., Johnson, J.T. Chest (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene expression in recurrent aborters: a potential correlation to interleukin-10 expression. Arnold, L.L., Doherty, T.M., Flor, A.W., Simon, J.A., Chou, J.Y., Chan, W.Y., Mansfield, B.C. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunohistochemical study of palatal salivary glands of denture wearing patients. Vigneswaran, N., Hornstein, O.P., Niedermeier, W., Gruschwitz, M. J. Oral Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Movement/arousals. Description, classification, and relationship to sleep apnea in children. Mograss, M.A., Ducharme, F.M., Brouillette, R.T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms. Ancoli-Israel, S., Cole, R., Alessi, C., Chambers, M., Moorcroft, W., Pollak, C.P. Sleep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Identifying montages that best detect electrographic seizure activity during polysomnography. Foldvary, N., Caruso, A.C., Mascha, E., Perry, M., Klem, G., McCarthy, V., Qureshi, F., Dinner, D. Sleep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Sleep in the laboratory and sleep at home: comparisons of older insomniacs and normal sleepers. Edinger, J.D., Fins, A.I., Sullivan, R.J., Marsh, G.R., Dailey, D.S., Hope, T.V., Young, M., Shaw, E., Carlson, D., Vasilas, D. Sleep. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of reviewing DATATOP videotapes on IQ and MMPI in PSG coordinators and investigators, or, whatever happened to Tony Lang? Friedman, J.H. Mov. Disord. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Murine CD9 is the receptor for pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17. Waterhouse, R., Ha, C., Dveksler, G.S. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Discrete membranous subaortic stenosis. Report of 31 patients, review of the literature, and delineation of management. Katz, N.M., Buckley, M.J., Liberthson, R.R. Circulation (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Subtle differences in human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene promoters allow for differential expression. Chamberlin, M.E., Lei, K.J., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of two allelic variants of a human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene. Lei, K.J., Wang, C., Chamberlin, M.E., Liu, J.L., Pan, C.J., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. The carboxyl-terminal domain of the human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein specifies intracellular retention and stability. Chen, H., Chan, W.Y., Chen, C.L., Mansfield, B.C., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein family of the immunoglobulin superfamily: identification of new members and estimation of family size. Khan, W.N., Teglund, S., Bremer, K., Hammarström, S. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. cDNA cloning demonstrates the expression of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein genes, a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family, in fetal liver. Zimmermann, W., Weiss, M., Thompson, J.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene organization of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein region on human chromosome 19: assembly and analysis of a 700-kb cosmid contig spanning the region. Olsen, A., Teglund, S., Nelson, D., Gordon, L., Copeland, A., Georgescu, A., Carrano, A., Hammarström, S. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein on blood cell regeneration after bone marrow transplantation. Blomberg, L.A., Cohn, M.L., Cahill, R.A., Chan, W.Y. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes in hematopoietic cells. Wu, S.M., Bazar, L.S., Cohn, M.L., Cahill, R.A., Chan, W.Y. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of cDNA encoding novel pregnancy-specific glycoprotein variants. Teglund, S., Zhou, G.Q., Hammarström, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of sodium butyrate on the synthesis of human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein. Chou, J.Y., Sartwell, A.D., Lei, K.J., Plouzek, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein gene expression and the induction by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Pan, C.J., Chamberlin, M.E., Wu, S.M., Chan, W.Y., Chou, J.Y. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Cloning and expression of genes encoding human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins. Lei, K.J., Sartwell, A.D., Pan, C.J., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of two new members of the pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein family from the myeloid cell line KG-1 and suggestion of two distinct classes of transcription unit. Barnett, T.R., Pickle, W., Elting, J.J. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Distinction of highly homologous pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) isoforms by differential absorption of antisera with recombinant PSG fusion protein domains. Tschentscher, P., Wagener, C., Neumaier, M. J. Immunol. Methods (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of the human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein PSG-5 promoter by KLF4 and Sp1. Blanchon, L., Nores, R., Gallot, D., Marceau, G., Borel, V., Yang, V.W., Bocco, J.L., Lémery, D., Panzetta-Dutari, G., Sapin, V. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Immortalization of virus-free human placental cells that express tissue-specific functions. Lei, K.J., Gluzman, Y., Pan, C.J., Chou, J.Y. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. The pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene cluster on human chromosome 19: fine structure of the 11 PSG genes and identification of 6 new genes forming a third subgroup within the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family. Teglund, S., Olsen, A., Khan, W.N., Frängsmyr, L., Hammarström, S. Genomics (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. The human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein genes are tightly linked on the long arm of chromosome 19 and are coordinately expressed. Thompson, J., Koumari, R., Wagner, K., Barnert, S., Schleussner, C., Schrewe, H., Zimmermann, W., Müller, G., Schempp, W., Zaninetta, D. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins function as immunomodulators by inducing secretion of IL-10, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 by human monocytes. Snyder, S.K., Wessner, D.H., Wessells, J.L., Waterhouse, R.M., Wahl, L.M., Zimmermann, W., Dveksler, G.S. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Expression of human pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein (PSG) genes during placental development. Streydio, C., Vassart, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
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