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Gene Review

PSG1  -  pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: B1G1, CD66 antigen-like family member F, CD66f, DHFRP2, FL-NCA-1/2, ...
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Disease relevance of PSG1


Psychiatry related information on PSG1

  • PSG1 was representative of PSGtot and similar to PSG2 only in those patients with rapid eye movement (REM) phase sleep in the first part of the night [6].
  • SP1 was detected at low levels in the CSF from 1 patient out of 5 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and from a patient with Behçet's disease [7].

High impact information on PSG1


Chemical compound and disease context of PSG1


Biological context of PSG1

  • Depending upon the domains compared, PSGGA and PSGGB share 92-98% nucleotide and 86-95% amino acid sequence identity with PSG93, the most abundant PS beta G transcript [1].
  • The coding region of PSG95 is identical to the previously reported cDNA clones PSG1d and FL-NCA, but PSG95 contains an additional 518 and 523 base pairs in the 3' end as compared with PSG1d and FL-NCA, respectively [1].
  • The two genes are arranged in the same 5'----3' orientation; the 3' region (including the A2 and B-C exons) of the upstream gene, PSGGA, is linked to the 5' region (including the 5'/L and L/N exons) of PSGGB, the downstream gene [1].
  • Three highly homologous cDNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) were isolated from a human placental cDNA library [15].
  • PS beta G gene expression in primary trophoblasts was slightly reduced by 8-bromo-cAMP, but was markedly inhibited by sodium butyrate [16].

Anatomical context of PSG1


Associations of PSG1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PSG1

  • PSGGB corresponds to the previously identified cDNA PSG6, which encodes proteins containing a 34-amino acid leader peptide and a 108-amino acid N domain, which is one amino acid shorter than the majority of PS beta G N domains [1].
  • These results suggest that PSG1 and PSG3 exhibit embryotropic activity at different stages of development in the mouse model [18].
  • Ribonuclease protection analysis showed that butyrate increased the PS beta G mRNAs containing the PSG-5' or PSG93-specific sequence to approximately 20% of human placental levels [19].
  • Human fetal liver contains a family of carcinoembryonic antigen related glycoproteins called the pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein/fetal liver non specific cross-reactive antigen (PS beta G/FL-NCA) glycoprotein family [24].
  • The calculated molecular masses of the two polypeptides encoded by PSG16 and PSG93 are 46.9 and 47.2 kDa, close to the size of the major nonglycosylated PS beta G of 48 kDa [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PSG1


  1. Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes: one is associated with hydatidiform mole. Leslie, K.K., Watanabe, S., Lei, K.J., Chou, D.Y., Plouzek, C.A., Deng, H.C., Torres, J., Chou, J.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. The human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PS beta G) and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-related proteins are members of the same multigene family. Streydio, C., Lacka, K., Swillens, S., Vassart, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Distribution of tumor-associated antigens in the various histologic components of germ cell tumors of the testis. Jacobsen, G.K., Jacobsen, M., Clausen, P.P. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. The immunohistochemical diagnosis of mesothelioma. Differentiation of mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma. Ordóñez, N.G. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Evaluation of five tumor markers (AFP, CEA, hCG, hPL and SP1) in monitoring therapy and follow-up of patients with testicular germ cell tumors. Szymendera, J.J., Zborzil, J., Sikorowa, L., Leńko, J., Kamińska, J.A., Gadek, A. Oncology (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: is the "half-night polysomnography" an adequate method for evaluating sleep profile and respiratory events? Fanfulla, F., Patruno, V., Bruschi, C., Rampulla, C. Eur. Respir. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Pregnancy-specific beta 1 glycoprotein (SP1) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Fagnart, O.C., Van de Wyngaert, F.A., Mareschal, J.C., Cornu, G., Sindic, C.J. Eur. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of circulating pregnancy-specific beta 1 glycoprotein as a marker in carcinoma of the breast in women. Rosen, S.W., Gail, M.H., Tormey, D.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased "pregnancy-specific" beta1-glycoprotein in certain nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Rosen, S.W., Javadpour, N., Calvert, I., Kaminska, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Pregnancy-specific beta-glycoprotein in complications of early pregnancy. Jouppila, P., Seppälä, M., Chard, T. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Value of five tumor markers (AFP, CEA, hCG, hPL and SP1) in diagnosis and staging of testicular germ cell tumors. Szymendera, J.J., Zborzil, J., Sikorowa, L., Kamińska, J.A., Gadek, A. Oncology (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. TAR independent activation of the human immunodeficiency virus in phorbol ester stimulated T lymphocytes. Harrich, D., Garcia, J., Mitsuyasu, R., Gaynor, R. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Ectopic production of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein by a nontrophoblastic tumor in vitro. Azer, P.C., Braunstein, G.D., Van de Velde, R.L., Van de Velde, S., Kogan, R., Engvall, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of retinoic acid on differentiation of choriocarcinoma cells in vitro. Chou, J.Y. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of cDNAs of the human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein family, a new subfamily of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Zheng, Q.X., Tease, L.A., Shupert, W.L., Chan, W.Y. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of the pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein gene in cultured human trophoblasts. Chou, J.Y., Zilberstein, M. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Binding of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 to CD9 on macrophages induces secretion of IL-10, IL-6, PGE2, and TGF-beta1. Ha, C.T., Waterhouse, R., Wessells, J., Wu, J.A., Dveksler, G.S. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein on the development of preimplantation embryo. Wu, S.M., Arnold, L.L., Rone, J., Trivadi, M., Chan, W.Y. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of sodium butyrate on the synthesis of human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein. Chou, J.Y., Sartwell, A.D., Lei, K.J., Plouzek, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of human pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein on blood cell regeneration after bone marrow transplantation. Blomberg, L.A., Cohn, M.L., Cahill, R.A., Chan, W.Y. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein: a new member of the carcinoembryonic antigen gene family. Watanabe, S., Chou, J.Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Persistence of Ha-ras-induced metastatic potential of SP1 mouse mammary tumors despite loss of the Ha-ras shuttle vector. Schlatter, B., Waghorne, C.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein synthesized by human placental fibroblasts. Chou, J.Y., Sartwell, A.D., Wan, Y.J., Watanabe, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: molecular cloning of cDNA for a PS beta G/FL-NCA glycoprotein with a novel domain arrangement. Khan, W.N., Hammarström, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and characterization of complementary DNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein. Watanabe, S., Chou, J.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Characterization of cDNA encoding human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein from placenta and extraplacental tissues and their comparison with carcinoembryonic antigen. Chan, W.Y., Borjigin, J., Zheng, Q.X., Shupert, W.L. DNA (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Specific and sensitive determination of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein by radioimmunoassay. A new pregnancy test. Grudzinskas, J.G., Gordon, Y.B., Jeffrey, D., Chard, T. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
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