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Gene Review

TSPO  -  translocator protein (18kDa)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BPBS, BZRP, DBI, IBP, MBR, ...
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Disease relevance of TSPO

  • To explore whether PBR expression level could be of prognostic value in invasive breast cancer, we studied a series of 117 patients who underwent surgery for primary breast carcinomas and were followed-up for 8 years [1].
  • RESULTS: Twenty-eight % of the colorectal cancers strongly overexpressed PBR [2].
  • It has been speculated that patients with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, who cannot make any steroids, might have a genetic lesion in mBzR [3].
  • Among normal breast tissues, fibroadenomas, primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas, there is a progressive increase in PBR levels parallel to the invasive and metastatic ability of the tumor (p < 0.0001) [4].
  • Thus, we propose that PBR overexpression could serve as a novel prognostic indicator of an aggressive phenotype in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers [4].
  • This research has generated significant efforts from multiple research groups throughout the world to apply TSPO as a marker of "active" brain pathology using in vivo imaging modalities such as Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in experimental animals and humans [5].
  • These data suggest that blocking TSPO function in tumor cells induces cell death and denotes a survival role for TSPO in prostate cancer and provides the first evidence for the use of benzodiazepines in prostate cancer therapeutics [6].

Psychiatry related information on TSPO


High impact information on TSPO


Chemical compound and disease context of TSPO


Biological context of TSPO


Anatomical context of TSPO


Associations of TSPO with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of TSPO


Other interactions of TSPO


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TSPO


  1. Immunohistochemical assessment of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in breast cancer and its relationship with survival. Galiègue, S., Casellas, P., Kramar, A., Tinel, N., Simony-Lafontaine, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor is a relevant prognostic factor in stage III colorectal cancer. Maaser, K., Grabowski, P., Sutter, A.P., Höpfner, M., Foss, H.D., Stein, H., Berger, G., Gavish, M., Zeitz, M., Scherübl, H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The human peripheral benzodiazepine receptor gene: cloning and characterization of alternative splicing in normal tissues and in a patient with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Lin, D., Chang, Y.J., Strauss, J.F., Miller, W.L. Genomics (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in human tumors: relationship to breast, colorectal, and prostate tumor progression. Han, Z., Slack, R.S., Li, W., Papadopoulos, V. J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO): molecular sensor of brain injury and repair. Chen, M.K., Guilarte, T.R. Pharmacol. Ther. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Translocator protein blockade reduces prostate tumor growth. Fafalios, A., Akhavan, A., Parwani, A.V., Bies, R.R., McHugh, K.J., Pflug, B.R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  7. No association of two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and mood disorders in a Japanese sample. Kurumaji, A., Nomoto, H., Yamada, K., Yoshikawa, T., Toru, M. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the cardiovascular system. Implications for drug development. Veenman, L., Gavish, M. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Abnormal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density associated with generalized social phobia. Johnson, M.R., Marazziti, D., Brawman-Mintzer, O., Emmanuel, N.P., Ware, M.R., Morton, W.A., Rossi, A., Cassano, G.B., Lydiard, R.B. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Altered platelet peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor in posttraumatic stress disorder. Gavish, M., Laor, N., Bidder, M., Fisher, D., Fonia, O., Muller, U., Reiss, A., Wolmer, L., Karp, L., Weizman, R. Neuropsychopharmacology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Benzodiazepine receptor-mediated chemotaxis of human monocytes. Ruff, M.R., Pert, C.B., Weber, R.J., Wahl, L.M., Wahl, S.M., Paul, S.M. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. The myxoma poxvirus protein, M11L, prevents apoptosis by direct interaction with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Everett, H., Barry, M., Sun, X., Lee, S.F., Frantz, C., Berthiaume, L.G., McFadden, G., Bleackley, R.C. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Translocator protein (18kDa): new nomenclature for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor based on its structure and molecular function. Papadopoulos, V., Baraldi, M., Guilarte, T.R., Knudsen, T.B., Lacapère, J.J., Lindemann, P., Norenberg, M.D., Nutt, D., Weizman, A., Zhang, M.R., Gavish, M. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. New fluorescent 2-phenylindolglyoxylamide derivatives as probes targeting the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: design, synthesis, and biological evaluation. Taliani, S., Simorini, F., Sergianni, V., La Motta, C., Da Settimo, F., Cosimelli, B., Abignente, E., Greco, G., Novellino, E., Rossi, L., Gremigni, V., Spinetti, F., Chelli, B., Martini, C. J. Med. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligand cytotoxicity unrelated to PBR expression. Hans, G., Wislet-Gendebien, S., Lallemend, F., Robe, P., Rogister, B., Belachew, S., Nguyen, L., Malgrange, B., Moonen, G., Rigo, J.M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in the regulation of proliferation of MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cell line. Carmel, I., Fares, F.A., Leschiner, S., Scherübl, H., Weisinger, G., Gavish, M. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. An association study between two missense variations of the benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) gene and schizophrenia in a Japanese sample. Kurumaji, A., Nomoto, H., Yoshikawa, T., Okubo, Y., Toru, M. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Lee, D.H., Kang, S.K., Lee, R.H., Ryu, J.M., Park, H.Y., Choi, H.S., Bae, Y.C., Suh, K.T., Kim, Y.K., Jung, J.S. J. Cell. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) aggregation and absence of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)/PBR association in the mitochondrial membrane as determined by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Bogan, R.L., Davis, T.L., Niswender, G.D. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. The 18-kDa translocator protein, formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, confers proapoptotic and antineoplastic effects in a human colorectal cancer cell line. Shoukrun, R., Veenman, L., Shandalov, Y., Leschiner, S., Spanier, I., Karry, R., Katz, Y., Weisinger, G., Weizman, A., Gavish, M. Pharmacogenet. Genomics (2008) [Pubmed]
  21. Possible involvement of peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in erythroid differentiation of human leukemia cell line, K562. Nakajima, O., Hashimoto, Y., Iwasaki, S. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Complications of cirrhosis III. Hepatic encephalopathy. Butterworth, R.F. J. Hepatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor: evidence for association with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). McEnery, M.W. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. The mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptor as a potential target protein for drug development: demonstration of functional significance with cell lines exhibiting differential expression of Bcl-2. Lash, L.H. Toxicol. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor triggers thymocyte differentiation. Rochard, P., Galiegue, S., Tinel, N., Peleraux, A., Bord, A., Jbilo, O., Casellas, P. Gene Expr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Systemic administration of alcohol to adult rats inhibits leydig cell activity: Time course of effect and role of nitric oxide. Herman, M., Kang, S.S., Lee, S., James, P., Rivier, C. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor. Riond, J., Mattei, M.G., Kaghad, M., Dumont, X., Guillemot, J.C., Le Fur, G., Caput, D., Ferrara, P. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
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