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MeSH Review

Brain Diseases

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Disease relevance of Brain Diseases


Psychiatry related information on Brain Diseases


High impact information on Brain Diseases

  • Heterozygous mutation or deletion of the beta subunit of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH1B1, also known as LIS1) in humans is associated with type I lissencephaly, a severe developmental brain disorder thought to result from abnormal neuronal migration [11].
  • Deficiency of guanine deaminase in human brain: a new brain disorder [12]?
  • The HAP-1 protein is enriched in the brain, suggesting a possible basis for the selective brain pathology of HD [13].
  • The functional interaction between these corticosteroid-responsive inputs at the level of the PVN is probably the key to understanding HPA dysregulation associated with stress-related brain disorders [14].
  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity may delineate a subgroup of patients who have a dopamine-sensitive brain disorder [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Brain Diseases


Biological context of Brain Diseases


Anatomical context of Brain Diseases


Gene context of Brain Diseases

  • Furthermore, the current knowledge about drug efflux transporters as a major determinant of multidrug resistance of brain diseases such as epilepsy is reviewed [31].
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in inflammatory and degenerative brain diseases [32].
  • As OSM regulated molecules relevant in inflammatory brain diseases, we investigated its expression in normal and pathological human brains [33].
  • Available research provides compelling theoretic, basic biologic and clinical support for the notion that ADHD is a brain disorder of likely genetic etiology with etiologic and pathophysiologic heterogeneity [34].
  • In contrast, caspase-3-deficient C57BL/6J mice reached adulthood, were fertile and showed minimal brain pathology [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Brain Diseases


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  2. Mutations causing childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination reduce eukaryotic initiation factor 2B complex formation and activity. Richardson, J.P., Mohammad, S.S., Pavitt, G.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Skid row alcoholism. A distinct sociomedical entity. Ashley, M.J., Olin, J.S., le Riche, W.H., Kornaczewski, A., Schmidt, W., Rankin, J.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope-mediated neuronal death: uncoupling of viral replication and neurotoxicity. Zhang, K., Rana, F., Silva, C., Ethier, J., Wehrly, K., Chesebro, B., Power, C. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Status epilepticus: the interaction of epilepsy and acute brain disease. Barry, E., Hauser, W.A. Neurology (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. The cellular localization of the L-ornithine decarboxylase/polyamine system in normal and diseased central nervous systems. Bernstein, H.G., Müller, M. Prog. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. The comparative effects of organic brain disease on cerebral blood flow and measured intelligence. Butler, R.W., Dickinson, W.A., Katholi, C., Halsey, J.H. Ann. Neurol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Huntington's disease: clinical and chemical effects of choline administration. Growdon, J.H., Cohen, E.L., Wurtman, R.J. Ann. Neurol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Cholinergic, monoaminergic and glutamatergic changes following perinatal asphyxia in the rat. Kohlhauser, C., Mosgoeller, W., Hoeger, H., Lubec, G., Lubec, B. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Activation of midbrain presumed dopaminergic neurones by muscarinic cholinergic receptors: an in vivo electrophysiological study in the rat. Gronier, B., Rasmussen, K. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Graded reduction of Pafah1b1 (Lis1) activity results in neuronal migration defects and early embryonic lethality. Hirotsune, S., Fleck, M.W., Gambello, M.J., Bix, G.J., Chen, A., Clark, G.D., Ledbetter, D.H., McBain, C.J., Wynshaw-Boris, A. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Deficiency of guanine deaminase in human brain: a new brain disorder? Kumar, S., Ou, S.W., Rathi, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. A huntingtin-associated protein enriched in brain with implications for pathology. Li, X.J., Li, S.H., Sharp, A.H., Nucifora, F.C., Schilling, G., Lanahan, A., Worley, P., Snyder, S.H., Ross, C.A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Brain corticosteroid receptor balance in health and disease. De Kloet, E.R., Vreugdenhil, E., Oitzl, M.S., Joëls, M. Endocr. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Schizophrenia: dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity and treatment response. Sternberg, D.E., VanKammen, D.P., Lerner, P., Bunney, W.E. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. Haloperidol for organic brain disorders. Davis, J.A. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. The GluR2 (GluR-B) hypothesis: Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in neurological disorders. Pellegrini-Giampietro, D.E., Gorter, J.A., Bennett, M.V., Zukin, R.S. Trends Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Zn(2+): a novel ionic mediator of neural injury in brain disease. Weiss, J.H., Sensi, S.L., Koh, J.Y. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. D-beta-hydroxybutyrate protects neurons in models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Kashiwaya, Y., Takeshima, T., Mori, N., Nakashima, K., Clarke, K., Veech, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Pathological mutations of nicotinic receptors and nicotine-based therapies for brain disorders. Léna, C., Changeux, J.P. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Tetracycline-regulated gene expression in the brain. Mansuy, I.M., Bujard, H. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Modulation of monocarboxylic acid transporter-1 kinetic function by the cAMP signaling pathway in rat brain endothelial cells. Smith, J.P., Drewes, L.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantification of brain phosphodiesterase 4 in rat with (R)-[11C]Rolipram-PET. Fujita, M., Zoghbi, S.S., Crescenzo, M.S., Hong, J., Musachio, J.L., Lu, J.Q., Liow, J.S., Seneca, N., Tipre, D.N., Cropley, V.L., Imaizumi, M., Gee, A.D., Seidel, J., Green, M.V., Pike, V.W., Innis, R.B. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Elevated extracellular glutamate levels increased the formation of hydroxyl radical in the striatum of anesthetized rat. Yang, C.S., Tsai, P.J., Lin, N.N., Liu, L., Kuo, J.S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Tirilazad widens the therapeutic window for riluzole-induced attenuation of progressive cortical degeneration in an infant rat model of the shaken baby syndrome. Smith, S.L., Hall, E.D. J. Neurotrauma (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Bone marrow stem cell gene therapy of arylsulfatase A-deficient mice, using an arylsulfatase A mutant that is hypersecreted from retrovirally transduced donor-type cells. Matzner, U., Schestag, F., Hartmann, D., Lüllmann-Rauch, R., D'Hooge, R., De Deyn, P.P., Gieselmann, V. Hum. Gene Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression profiling in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) knockout mouse astrocytes to characterize human TSC brain pathology. Ess, K.C., Uhlmann, E.J., Li, W., Li, H., Declue, J.E., Crino, P.B., Gutmann, D.H. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Intranigral infusion of interleukin-1beta activates astrocytes and protects from subsequent 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity. Saura, J., Parés, M., Bové, J., Pezzi, S., Alberch, J., Marin, C., Tolosa, E., Martí, M.J. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Life imaging of peroxynitrite in rat microglial and astroglial cells: Role of superoxide and antioxidants. Possel, H., Noack, H., Keilhoff, G., Wolf, G. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Glutamate receptor binding in the human hippocampus and adjacent cortex during development and aging. Johnson, M., Perry, R.H., Piggott, M.A., Court, J.A., Spurden, D., Lloyd, S., Ince, P.G., Perry, E.K. Neurobiol. Aging (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of drug efflux transporters in the brain for drug disposition and treatment of brain diseases. Löscher, W., Potschka, H. Prog. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in inflammatory and degenerative brain diseases. Minghetti, L. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Effects of oncostatin M on human cerebral endothelial cells and expression in inflammatory brain lesions. Ruprecht, K., Kuhlmann, T., Seif, F., Hummel, V., Kruse, N., Brück, W., Rieckmann, P. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a noradrenergic disorder. Biederman, J., Spencer, T. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Strain-dependent neurodevelopmental abnormalities in caspase-3-deficient mice. Leonard, J.R., Klocke, B.J., D'Sa, C., Flavell, R.A., Roth, K.A. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  36. Neuromagnetic measurement of unilateral temporo-parietal theta rhythm in patients with internal carotid artery occlusive disease. Seki, S., Nakasato, N., Ohtomo, S., Kanno, A., Shimizu, H., Tominaga, T. Neuroimage (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Cholinesterase activities in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Appleyard, M.E., Smith, A.D., Berman, P., Wilcock, G.K., Esiri, M.M., Neary, D., Bowen, D.M. Brain (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. 99mTc-bicisate reliably images CBF in chronic brain diseases but fails to show reflow hyperemia in subacute stroke: report of a multicenter trial of 105 cases comparing 133Xe and 99mTc-bicisate (ECD, neurolite) measured by SPECT on same day. Lassen, N.A., Sperling, B. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1994) [Pubmed]
  39. Increased intrathecal release of soluble fractalkine in HIV-infected patients. Sporer, B., Kastenbauer, S., Koedel, U., Arendt, G., Pfister, H.W. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2003) [Pubmed]
  40. Piperacetazine versus thioridazine in the treatment of organic brain disease: a controlled double-blind study. Goldstein, S.E., Birnbom, F. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. (1976) [Pubmed]
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