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Gene Review

DBI  -  diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACBD1, ACBP, Acyl-CoA-binding protein, CCK-RP, Diazepam-binding inhibitor, ...
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Disease relevance of DBI


Psychiatry related information on DBI


High impact information on DBI


Chemical compound and disease context of DBI


Biological context of DBI


Anatomical context of DBI

  • DBI and TTN activate steroidogenesis by binding to a specific receptor located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, termed mitochondrial DBI receptor complex (MDRC) [20].
  • The ACBP protein is consistently expressed in monocytes of all donors [21].
  • The role of these sites and DBI in adrenal gland, testis, and kidney remains to be determined [1].
  • Two different DBI transcripts capable of encoding polypeptides of 86 and 104 amino acids were detected in all the human tissues and cell lines studied [22].
  • We conclude that DBI-derived peptides induce [Ca2+]i changes and modulate neutrophil function mainly through pBR-independent pathways [23].

Associations of DBI with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of DBI


Other interactions of DBI


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DBI

  • Based on these data we propose a model where the interaction of DBI with PBR, at the outer/inner membrane contact sites, is the signal transducer of hormone-stimulated and constitutive steroidogenesis at the mitochondrial level [24].
  • After 9 days from the hypophysectomy, the levels of DBI-like immunoreactivity (DBI-LI) and DBI-mRNA declined to approximately 20% of their normal value; in contrast MDR-density and MDR-mRNA levels were reduced by 50-60% and were associated to a similar decrease in the activity of type A monoamine oxidase, a marker for mitochondrial proteins [26].
  • RT-PCR amplification showed that the mRNA encoding the endozepine precursor diazepam-binding inhibitor is expressed in the human testis [28].
  • As demonstrated by Northern blot analysis, the mRNA encoding DBI/ACBP was expressed in prostate tissue and in the three human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines tested: LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 [5].
  • One protein, which was decreased in concentration in both diseases, was characterised as diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) by N-terminal sequence analysis [29].


  1. Cloning and expression of cDNA for human diazepam binding inhibitor, a natural ligand of an allosteric regulatory site of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor. Gray, P.W., Glaister, D., Seeburg, P.H., Guidotti, A., Costa, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of DBI in brain and its posttranslational processing products in normal and abnormal behavior. Guidotti, A. Neuropharmacology (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Increased expression of diazepam binding inhibitor in human brain tumors. Alho, H., Kolmer, M., Harjuntausta, T., Helén, P. Cell Growth Differ. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Diazepam binding inhibitor and total cholesterol plasma levels in cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Venturini, I., Zeneroli, M.L., Corsi, L., Baraldi, C., Ferrarese, C., Pecora, N., Frigo, M., Alho, H., Farina, F., Baraldi, M. Regul. Pept. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Androgen regulation of the messenger RNA encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor/acyl-CoA-binding protein in the human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell line LNCaP. Swinnen, J.V., Esquenet, M., Heyns, W., Rombauts, W., Verhoeven, G. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Multiple missense mutations in the diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) gene identified in schizophrenia but lack of disease association. Niu, N., Rice, S.R., Heston, L.L., Sobell, J.L. Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. CSF diazepam-binding inhibitor concentrations in panic disorder. Payeur, R., Lydiard, R.B., Ballenger, J.C., Laraia, M.T., Fossey, M.D., Zealberg, J. Biol. Psychiatry (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. CSF neuroactive steroids in affective disorders: pregnenolone, progesterone, and DBI. George, M.S., Guidotti, A., Rubinow, D., Pan, B., Mikalauskas, K., Post, R.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Alterations in cerebral diazepam binding inhibitor expression in drug dependence: a possible biochemical alteration common to drug dependence. Ohkuma, S., Katsura, M., Tsujimura, A. Life Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Diazepam binding inhibitor-like immunoreactivity (DBI-LI) in human CSF. Correlations with neurological disorders. Ferrero, P., Benna, P., Costa, P., Tarenzi, L., Baggio, G., Bergamasco, B., Bergamini, L. J. Neurol. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine/diazepam binding inhibitor receptor: biological role in steroidogenic cell function. Papadopoulos, V. Endocr. Rev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Mental disorders among alcoholics. Relationship to age of onset and cerebrospinal fluid neuropeptides. Roy, A., DeJong, J., Lamparski, D., Adinoff, B., George, T., Moore, V., Garnett, D., Kerich, M., Linnoila, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Schizophrenia as an anomaly of development of cerebral asymmetry. A postmortem study and a proposal concerning the genetic basis of the disease. Crow, T.J., Ball, J., Bloom, S.R., Brown, R., Bruton, C.J., Colter, N., Frith, C.D., Johnstone, E.C., Owens, D.G., Roberts, G.W. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Diazepam-binding inhibitor. A brain neuropeptide present in human spinal fluid: studies in depression, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Barbaccia, M.L., Costa, E., Ferrero, P., Guidotti, A., Roy, A., Sunderland, T., Pickar, D., Paul, S.M., Goodwin, F.K. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Alimentary reactive hypoglycemia: effects of DBI and dilantin on insulin secretion. Hofeldt, F.D., Lufkin, E.G., Hull, S.F., Davis, J.W., Dippe, S., Levin, S., Forsham, P.H. Military medicine. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Benzodiazepine receptors and diazepam-binding inhibitor in human cerebral tumors. Ferrarese, C., Appollonio, I., Frigo, M., Gaini, S.M., Piolti, R., Frattola, L. Ann. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Targeting Prostaglandin E EP Receptors to Inhibit Metastasis. Fulton, A.M., Ma, X., Kundu, N. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a pseudogene related to the human acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor. Gersuk, V.H., Rose, T.M., Todaro, G.J. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. New chromosomal mapping assignments for argininosuccinate synthetase pseudogene 1, interferon-beta 3 gene, and the diazepam binding inhibitor gene. Todd, S., Naylor, S.L. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. The pharmacology of neurosteroidogenesis. Costa, E., Auta, J., Guidotti, A., Korneyev, A., Romeo, E. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression analysis of genes involved in fat assimilation in human monocytes. Klapper, M., Döpner, M., Vock, C., Nitz, I., Helwig, U., Schrezenmeir, J., Döring, F. IUBMB Life (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. The characterization of two diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) transcripts in humans. Kolmer, M., Rovio, A., Alho, H. Biochem. J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Diazepam-binding inhibitor-derived peptides induce intracellular calcium changes and modulate human neutrophil function. Cosentino, M., Marino, F., Cattaneo, S., Di Grazia, L., Francioli, C., Fietta, A.M., Lecchini, S., Frigo, G. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Role of the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor in steroidogenesis. Papadopoulos, V., Brown, A.S. J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Purification and analysis of growth regulating proteins secreted by a human melanoma cell line. Apfel, R., Lottspeich, F., Hoppe, J., Behl, C., Dürr, G., Bogdahn, U. Melanoma Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. ACTH-induced mitochondrial DBI receptor (MDR) and diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) expression in adrenals of hypophysectomized rats is not cause-effect related to its immediate steroidogenic action. Cavallaro, S., Pani, L., Guidotti, A., Costa, E. Life Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Interleukin-8 production induced by the endozepine triakontatetraneuropeptide in human neutrophils: role of calcium and pharmacological investigation of signal transduction pathways. Marino, F., Cosentino, M., Fietta, A.M., Ferrari, M., Cattaneo, S., Frigo, G., Lecchini, S., Frigo, G.M. Cell. Signal. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of endozepines in the human testicular tissue: effect of triakontatetraneuropeptide on testosterone secretion. Duparc, C., Lefebvre, H., Tonon, M.C., Vaudry, H., Kuhn, J.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. A comparative proteome analysis of hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic and Alzheimer's disease individuals. Edgar, P.F., Schonberger, S.J., Dean, B., Faull, R.L., Kydd, R., Cooper, G.J. Mol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
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