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MeSH Review

Warm Ischemia

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Disease relevance of Warm Ischemia


Psychiatry related information on Warm Ischemia

  • A 30-min period of warm ischemia did not impair the endocrine function of the pancreatic grafts, which was assessed by measuring the blood glucose levels and glucose decay constants (K), and a 60-min period of warm ischemia was considered to be the critical period for reversible tissue damage [6].

High impact information on Warm Ischemia

  • Data from quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that B7-1 and B7-2 mRNA levels were elevated in hepatic lobes after warm ischemia/reperfusion (5.13- and 52.9-fold increase, respectively), whereas ICAM-1 mRNA expression was rather constitutive but further enhanced by warm ischemia/reperfusion (4.24-fold increase) [7].
  • Also, survival in treated Ob rats following a lethal 90 minutes of partial in vivo warm ischemia was examined [1].
  • We have found that the DNA binding activity of AP-1 was dramatically increased following warm ischemia at 1 to 3 hours postreperfusion [8].
  • Thus, both furosemide and bumetanide showed a clear benificial effect on rat livers subjected to warm ischemia [9].
  • Also, after 120 minutes of warm ischemia, LDH and aspartate aminotransferase release were significantly decreased and bile flow increased by pretreatment with bumetanide [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Warm Ischemia


Biological context of Warm Ischemia


Anatomical context of Warm Ischemia


Associations of Warm Ischemia with chemical compounds


Gene context of Warm Ischemia

  • In this report, we first evaluated the expression of VEGF in a mouse model of liver warm ischemia [30].
  • CYP3A, known to account for an average 30% of total P450 content in the human liver was the most susceptible to the warm ischemia [31].
  • Using a 90-min lobar warm ischemia model, wild type (WT), TLR4 KO/mutant and TLR2 KO mice were first assessed for the severity of hepatocellular damage at 6 h postreperfusion [32].
  • To test our hypothesis, we induced partial warm ischemia to the livers of Nramp1(+/+) and Nramp1(-/-) mice for 45 min of by clamping the hilum of the median and left lateral lobes, followed by 30 or 60 min of reperfusion [33].
  • Impact of warm ischemic time on microsomal P450 isoforms in a porcine model of therapeutic liver resection [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Warm Ischemia


  1. Oxidative stress in fatty livers of obese Zucker rats: rapid amelioration and improved tolerance to warm ischemia with tocopherol. Soltys, K., Dikdan, G., Koneru, B. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential expression of heme oxygenase-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in cadaveric and living donor kidneys after ischemia-reperfusion. Lemos, F.B., Ijzermans, J.N., Zondervan, P.E., Peeters, A.M., van den Engel, S., Mol, W.M., Weimar, W., Baan, C.C. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. N-acetylcysteine ameliorates reperfusion injury after warm hepatic ischemia. Fukuzawa, K., Emre, S., Senyuz, O., Acarli, K., Schwartz, M.E., Miller, C.M. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Cyclosporine A sensitizes the kidney to tubulointerstitial fibrosis induced by renal warm ischemia. Ahmed, A., Huang, L., Raftery, A.T., Ahmed, A.K., Fahmy, H., El Nahas, A.M., Haylor, J.L. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. "Chemical preconditioning" by 3-nitropropionate reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in cardiac-arrested rat lungs. Hirata, T., Fukuse, T., Ishikawa, S., Hanaoka, S., Chen, Q., Shoji, T., Wada, H. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. alpha-Tocopherol pretreatment protects the endocrine function of grafts against ischemic damage during heterotopic pancreatic transplantation. Ikeda, M., Matsura, T., Sumimoto, K., Fukuda, Y., Yamada, K., Kawasaki, T., Dohi, K. Life Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced expression of B7-1, B7-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in sinusoidal endothelial cells by warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver. Kojima, N., Sato, M., Suzuki, A., Sato, T., Satoh, S., Kato, T., Senoo, H. Hepatology (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the liver of BALB/c mice activates AP-1 and nuclear factor kappaB independently of IkappaB degradation. Zwacka, R.M., Zhang, Y., Zhou, W., Halldorson, J., Engelhardt, J.F. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Decrease of ischemic injury to the isolated perfused rat liver by loop diuretics. Fiegen, R.J., Rauen, U., Hartmann, M., Decking, U.K., de Groot, H. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Prospective analysis of the value of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure on renal function after kidney transplantation. Jacobi, J., Rockstroh, J., John, S., Schreiber, M., Schlaich, M.P., Neumayer, H.H., Schmieder, R.E. Transplantation (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term results of renal transplantation using kidneys harvested from non-heartbeating donors: a 15-year experience. Droupy, S., Blanchet, P., Eschwège, P., Hammoudi, Y., Joseph, L., Kriaa, F., Bedossa, P., Duranteau, J., Charpentier, B., Benoît, G. J. Urol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Inosine: alternative or adjunct to regional hypothermia in the prevention of post-ischemic renal failure? Marberger, M., Günther, R., Alken, P., Rumpf, W., Ranc, M. Eur. Urol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Sinusoidal flow block after warm ischemia in rats with diet-induced fatty liver. Hakamada, K., Sasaki, M., Takahashi, K., Umehara, Y., Konn, M. J. Surg. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Assessment of high-energy phosphorus compounds in the rat kidney by in situ 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: effect of ischemia and furosemide. Takeda, M., Katayama, Y., Tsutsui, T., Takahashi, H., Saito, K., Sato, S., Yuasa, T., Kuwabara, T. Urol. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Total warm ischemia and reperfusion impairs flow in all rat gut layers but increases leukocyte-vessel wall interactions in the submucosa only. Beuk, R.J., Heineman, E., Tangelder, G.J., Quaedackers, J.S., Marks, W.H., Lieberman, J.M., oude Egbrink, M.G. Ann. Surg. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Breath ethane: a specific indicator of free-radical-mediated lipid peroxidation following reperfusion of the ischemic liver. Kazui, M., Andreoni, K.A., Norris, E.J., Klein, A.S., Burdick, J.F., Beattie, C., Sehnert, S.S., Bell, W.R., Bulkley, G.B., Risby, T.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of Ringer's acetate solution during transient hepatic inflow occlusion in rabbits. Nakatani, T., Sakamoto, Y., Ando, H., Kobayashi, K. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in glucose transporter 2 and carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes in the liver during cold preservation and warm ischemia. Inomoto, T., Tanaka, A., Awane, M., Kanai, M., Shinohara, H., Hatano, S., Sato, S., Gomi, T., Masuda, K., Someya, Y., Honda, K., Seino, Y., Yamaoka, Y. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Cathepsin B inactivation attenuates hepatocyte apoptosis and liver damage in steatotic livers after cold ischemia-warm reperfusion injury. Baskin-Bey, E.S., Canbay, A., Bronk, S.F., Werneburg, N., Guicciardi, M.E., Nyberg, S.L., Gores, G.J. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Electroporation-mediated HGF gene transfection protected the kidney against graft injury. Isaka, Y., Yamada, K., Takabatake, Y., Mizui, M., Miura-Tsujie, M., Ichimaru, N., Yazawa, K., Utsugi, R., Okuyama, A., Hori, M., Imai, E., Takahara, S. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Role of adenosine in preservation by the two-layer method of ischemically damaged canine pancreas. Kuroda, Y., Hiraoka, K., Tanioka, Y., Matsumoto, S., Morita, A., Fujino, Y., Suzuki, Y., Ku, Y., Saitoh, Y. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Microcirculatory effects of melatonin in rat skeletal muscle after prolonged ischemia. Wang, W.Z., Fang, X.H., Stephenson, L.L., Baynosa, R.C., Khiabani, K.T., Zamboni, W.A. J. Pineal Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Alternatives to the double vena cava method in partial liver transplantation. Kishi, Y., Sugawara, Y., Matsui, Y., Akamatsu, N., Motomura, N., Takamoto, S., Makuuchi, M. Liver Transpl. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Resveratrol protects against cold ischemia-warm reoxygenation-induced damages to mitochondria and cells in rat liver. Plin, C., Tillement, J.P., Berdeaux, A., Morin, D. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Pretransplant model to predict posttransplant survival in liver transplant patients. Ghobrial, R.M., Gornbein, J., Steadman, R., Danino, N., Markmann, J.F., Holt, C., Anselmo, D., Amersi, F., Chen, P., Farmer, D.G., Han, S., Derazo, F., Saab, S., Goldstein, L.I., McDiarmid, S.V., Busuttil, R.W. Ann. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Deleterious effect of cyclosporins on the ischemic kidney in the rat and the protection by the calcium antagonist verapamil. Ar'Rajab, A., Dawidson, I.J., Harris, R.B., Mileski, W.J., Sentementes, J.T. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. A 10-year experience of liver transplantation for hepatitis C: analysis of factors determining outcome in over 500 patients. Ghobrial, R.M., Steadman, R., Gornbein, J., Lassman, C., Holt, C.D., Chen, P., Farmer, D.G., Yersiz, H., Danino, N., Collisson, E., Baquarizo, A., Han, S.S., Saab, S., Goldstein, L.I., Donovan, J.A., Esrason, K., Busuttil, R.W. Ann. Surg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Pharmacologic modulation of experimental postischemic hepatic function. Ontell, S.J., Makowka, L., Trager, J., Mazzaferro, V., Ove, P., Starzl, T.E. Ann. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Improved renal function using adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride in preservation of canine kidneys subjected to warm ischemia. Lytton, B., Vaisbort, V.R., Glazier, W.B., Chaudry, I.H., Baue, A.E. Transplantation (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist modulates leukocyte trafficking and protects mouse livers against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Tsuchihashi, S., Ke, B., Kaldas, F., Flynn, E., Busuttil, R.W., Briscoe, D.M., Kupiec-Weglinski, J.W. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Impact of warm ischemic time on microsomal P450 isoforms in a porcine model of therapeutic liver resection. Suzuki, S., Satoh, T., Yoshino, H., Kobayashi, E. Life Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Toll-like receptor and heme oxygenase-1 signaling in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. Shen, X.D., Ke, B., Zhai, Y., Gao, F., Busuttil, R.W., Cheng, G., Kupiec-Weglinski, J.W. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Disruption of the Nramp1 (also known as Slc11a1) gene in Kupffer cells attenuates early-phase, warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in the mouse liver. Wyllie, S., Seu, P., Gao, F.Q., Gros, P., Goss, J.A. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Livers from non-heart-beating donors tolerate short periods of warm ischemia. Monbaliu, D., Crabbé, T., Roskams, T., Fevery, J., Verwaest, C., Pirenne, J. Transplantation (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Hepatic preconditioning after prolonged warm ischemia by means of S-adenosyl-L-methionine administration in pig liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors. Net, M., Valero, R., Almenara, R., Deulofeu, R., López-Boado, M.A., Capdevila, L., Barros, P., Bombí, J.A., Agustí, M., Adalia, R., Ruiz, A., Arce, Y., Manyalich, M., García-Valdecasas, J.C. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Adenine nucleotide tissue concentrations and liver allograft viability after cold preservation and warm ischemia. Harvey, P.R., Iu, S., McKeown, C.M., Petrunka, C.N., Ilson, R.G., Strasberg, S.M. Transplantation (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Recovery of renal function after warm ischemia. I. The effect of chlorpromazine and phenoxybenzamine. Jablonski, P., Howden, B., Leslie, E., Rae, D., Birrell, C., Marshall, V.C., Tange, J. Transplantation (1983) [Pubmed]
  38. Protective effects of alpha-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 on warm ischemic damages of the rat kidney. Takenaka, M., Tatsukawa, Y., Dohi, K., Ezaki, H., Matsukawa, K., Kawasaki, T. Transplantation (1981) [Pubmed]
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