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Chemical Compound Review

Metifex     7-ethoxyacridine-3,9-diamine; 2...

Synonyms: Hectalin, Acrinolum, Amoebin, Rivanol, acrinol, ...
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Disease relevance of Ethodin


High impact information on Ethodin

  • After several months, Rivanol-treated sera from the rabbits contained high-titer antibodies, as determined by their abilities to bind 25-hydroxy-[3H]cholecalciferol [5].
  • In this simple and low-cost radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure for thyroxin (T4), ethacridine (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate; Rivanol) is used to separate antibody-bound ligand and free ligand [6].
  • Important changes include the elimination of calcium and magnesium ions from salt solutions used in the assay, the use of deoxyribonuclease to prevent lymphocyte clumping, and pretreatment of plasma samples (heating at 63 C for 10 min followed by acrinol precipitation) to prevent nonspecific inhibition of rosette formation [7].
  • These results provide some evidence related to the mechanism of myometrial contractile action of ethodin and support the hypothesis that mast cells may be involved in the regulation of myometrium contractility [8].
  • Ethodin at a concentration of 10 microM and Compound 48/80 (1 microg/ml) evoked contractions of uterine horns in an isolated organ bath preparation [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ethodin


Biological context of Ethodin

  • Second trimester pregnancy termination using extra-amniotic ethacridine lactate [14].
  • A peptide corresponding to the phosphorylation site of DrrA appeared to inhibit TCS function by a mechanism similar to that of ethodin, except that autophosphorylation was inhibited at high peptide concentrations [15].
  • There was little or no correlation between cell-mediated immune responses (as measured by LST) and serum antibody responses (as measured by STT, RIV test, and CF test) in vaccinated but culture-negative cattle and in some nonvaccinated cattle during the incubation period [16].
  • Uterine activity and placental histology in abortion at mid-trimester by rivanol and catheter [17].
  • The rivanol-purified antiserum after dilution was used as the binding protein [18].

Anatomical context of Ethodin

  • However, the cells contracted after a purified fraction of mast cells that had been degranulated by the action of the drug ethodin, which was added to the culture medium [8].
  • Prostaglandins and thromboxanes in amniotic fluid during rivanol-induced abortion and labour [19].
  • In the matrix of the epiphyseal cartilage, the regular, birefringent network demonstrable by Rivanol reaction became irregular and hardly recognizable [20].
  • Purification of IgG monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid based on Rivanol precipitation [21].
  • These results suggest that the abortive effect of rivanol and catheter on the uterus and placenta is different from that induced by other chemicals [17].

Associations of Ethodin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Ethodin

  • PAI-2, which is precipitated by low Rivanol concentrations, can be selectively redissolved from the pellet by increasing the Rivanol concentration in the presence of a reducing agent, i.e. dithiothreitol [26].
  • Feline transferrin was precipitated with Rivanol [27].
  • 1. Pig plasma alpha-protease inhibitors (protease inhibitor-1, PI1; protease inhibitor-2, PI2; postalbumin-1A, PO1A; postalbumin-1B, PO1B), all encoded by one gene complex (gene cluster), were isolated by rivanol-ammonium sulphate fractionation and double-one dimensional IPG-PAGE [28].
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with CSP antigen under optimal conditions was from 100- to 700-fold more sensitive than the standard agglutination, card, Rivanol precipitation-plate agglutination, and the complement fixation tests in detecting immunoglobulin G antibody [29].
  • We have validated the assay by repeating, in triplicate, the IC50 determination of rivanol, our previously identified telomerase inhibitor [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ethodin


  1. Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance plasmid in Staphylococcus aureus that possesses ability to confer chlorhexidine and acrinol resistance. Yamamoto, T., Tamura, Y., Yokota, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of TRACK XI fluorometric immunoassay system with other serologic tests for detection of serum antibody to Brucella abortus in cattle. Hall, S.M., Confer, A.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutagenic activity of acrinol in Salmonella typhimurium. Yasunaka, K., Okada, H. Mutat. Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Brucellosis in wild swine: a serologic and bacteriologic survey in the southeastern United States and Hawaii. Zygmont, S.M., Nettles, V.F., Shotts, E.B., Carmen, W.A., Blackburn, B.O. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Improved radioimmunoassay for vitamin D and its use in assessing vitamin D status. Hollis, B.W., Napoli, J.L. Clin. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Separation of bound and free ligand by ethacridine (Rivanol) in thyroxin radioimmunoassay. Bhupal, V., Mani, R.S. Clin. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Studies on the rosette inhibition assay. Improvement of the method and correlation with monkey skin graft prolongation. Nelson, J.W., Parcells, A.J., Cosimi, A.B., Esser, R.E. Transplantation (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Ethodin: pharmacological evidence of the interaction between smooth muscle and mast cells in the myometrium. Rudolph, M.I., de los Angeles García, M., Sepulveda, M., Brandan, E., Reinicke, K., Nicovani, S., Villan, L. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Extra--amniotic instillation of rivanol in the management of patients with missed abortion and fetal death. Olund, A. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Log-linear and logistic modeling of dependence among diagnostic tests. Hanson, T.E., Johnson, W.O., Gardner, I.A. Prev. Vet. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative toxicity of acriflavine & rivanol in mice. Joshi, N.J., Mhatre, P.N., Daftary, S.N., Munshi, S.R. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Synergistic bactericidal effects of acrinol and tetracycline against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Saji, M., Fujii, K., Ohkuni, H., Irie, N., Osono, E., Kato, F. J. Infect. Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Experimental infection of dogs with Brucella abortus. Pidgeon, G.L., Scanlan, C.M., Miller, W.R., Mayer, T.W. The Cornell veterinarian. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Second trimester pregnancy termination using extra-amniotic ethacridine lactate. Bhathena, R.K., Sheriar, N.K., Walvekar, V.R., Guillebaud, J. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Kinetic and mechanistic analyses of new classes of inhibitors of two-component signal transduction systems using a coupled assay containing HpkA-DrrA from Thermotoga maritima. Foster, J.E., Sheng, Q., McClain, J.R., Bures, M., Nicas, T.I., Henry, K., Winkler, M.E., Gilmour, R. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell-mediated immune responses in cattle adult-vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 and in cattle infected with Brucella abortus field strain. Kaneene, J.M., Nicoletti, P., Anderson, R.K., Muscoplat, C.C., Johnson, D.W. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  17. Uterine activity and placental histology in abortion at mid-trimester by rivanol and catheter. Manabe, Y., Manabe, A., Yoshida, Y. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. A sensitive direct radioimmunoassay for assessing D-norgestrel levels in human plasma. Watson, T.G., Stewart, B.J. Ann. Clin. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  19. Prostaglandins and thromboxanes in amniotic fluid during rivanol-induced abortion and labour. Olund, A., Kindahl, H., Oliw, E., Lindgren, J.A., Larsson, B. Prostaglandins (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of prenatal indium chloride exposure on chondrogenic ossification. Ungváry, G., Tátrai, E., Szakmáry, E., Náray, M. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Purification of IgG monoclonal antibodies from ascitic fluid based on Rivanol precipitation. Franĕk, F. Meth. Enzymol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Intraamniotic injection of ethacridine for second-trimester induction of labor. Tien, K.H. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable lipase from Bacillus sp. Sugihara, A., Tani, T., Tominaga, Y. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Randomized study on the effect of adding oxytocin to ethacridine lactate or misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy. Kelekci, S., Erdemoglu, E., Inan, I. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of ethacridine lactate and prostaglandin E2 in second trimester medical abortion. Inan, I., Kelekçi, S., Yazar, D. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) from human placenta. Evidence for vitronectin/PAI-2 complexes in human placenta extract. Radtke, K.P., Wenz, K.H., Heimburger, N. Biol. Chem. Hoppe-Seyler (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analysis of feline serum proteins. Baker, R.J., Valli, V.E. Can. J. Vet. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Pig plasma protease inhibitor gene complex: isolation and partial characterization of three inhibitors. Stratil, A., Gahne, B., Juneja, R.K., Hjerténs, S., Spik, G. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine antibody to Brucella abortus. Tabatabai, L.B., Deyoe, B.L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. A rapid direct telomerase assay method using 96-well streptavidin plates. Francis, R., Friedman, S.H. BioTechniques (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Detection of serum antibody to Brucella abortus in cattle by use of a quantitative fluorometric immunoassay. Hall, S.M., Confer, A.W., Tabatabai, L.B., Deyoe, B.L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunoassays for the quantitative determination of colchicine. Poulev, A., Deus-Neumann, B., Bombardelli, E., Zenk, M.H. Planta Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Indirect hemolysis test in the serodiagnosis of bovine brucellosis. Nicoletti, P., Carlsen, W.B. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
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